Week 4 Walden Public Service Motivation

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Week 4 Walden Public Service Motivation for Undergraduate & Military Students Discussion

Week 4: Research Purpose

Returning to the Grand Canyon panorama discussed in previous weeks, imagine that you are comfortable with the overall arrangement of pictures; however, you have identified gaps in your panorama and have chosen to fill them in, which will require another trip to the Grand Canyon.

As you plan your next trip, you realize there could be a number of ways to approach this task, so a clear purpose for your trip is needed to focus your efforts. For researchers who are designing their research, a clear purpose is also an important step in the research process because it guides the direction of their study.

This week, you will continue to analyze the interrelated elements of a research study, now turning to the purpose statement and its relation to theory and the problem statement. You will also consider the relationship between research and social change.

Learning Objectives

Students will:
  • Evaluate purpose statements in research studies published in peer-reviewed journals
  • Analyze alignment among theory, problem, and purpose in research studies published in peer-reviewed journals
  • Explain relationship between research and social change
  • Apply APA Style to writing



Learning Resources

REQUIRED READINGS

Babbie, E. (2017). Basics of social research (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

  • Chapter 4, “Research Design”

Burkholder, G. J., Cox, K. A., & Crawford, L. M. (2016). The scholar-practitioner’s guide to research design. Baltimore, MD: Laureate Publishing.

  • Chapter 10, “Writing the Research Proposal”

Document: Journal Articles (Word Document)
For the Discussion, download this document, refer to the assigned journal articles for your program, and find these articles in the Walden Library.

Document: Purpose Statement Checklist (PDF)

REQUIRED MEDIA

Laureate Education (Producer). (2016c). Purposes of research [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.
Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 14 minutes.
Dr. Patton discusses the five purposes of research. 

Laureate Education (Producer). (2009a). Doctoral research: Social change [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.
Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 10 minutes.
Walden University researchers/professors explain how and why they believe research can help bring about positive social change. 


Discussion: Evaluating Purpose Statements

There is a link between understanding the purpose of one’s research and selecting the appropriate methods to investigate the questions that are derived from that purpose.
–(Newman, Ridenour, Newman, & DeMarco, G. M. P., Jr., 2003, p. 169)

For this Discussion, you will evaluate the purpose statements in assigned journal articles in your discipline and consider the alignment of theory, problem, and purpose. You will also explain your position on the relationship between research and social change.

Alignment means that a research study possesses clear and logical connections among all of its various components. To achieve these connections, researchers must carefully craft the components of their study such that when they are viewed together, there is a coherent interrelationship.

As you read the authors’ purpose statements, consider how well the intent of the study, and its connection to the problem and theoretical framework, is presented. Also consider if the purpose statement reveals the study’s potential for engendering positive social change.

As you know, social change is a distinguishing feature of Walden University’s mission. Positive social change implies a transformation that results in positive outcomes. This can happen at many levels (e.g., individual, family systems, neighborhoods, organizations, nationally and globally); and positive social change can occur at different rates: slow and gradual or fast and radical

Post a critique of the research study in which you:

  • Evaluate the purpose statement using the Purpose Statement Checklist as a guide
  • Analyze alignment among the theory, research problem, and purpose
  • Explain your position on the relationship between research and social change

Be sure to support your Main Issue Post and Response Post with reference to the week’s Learning Resources and other scholarly evidence in APA Style.

Read a selection of your classmates’ postings.Research Theory, Design, and Methods Walden University Purpose Statement Checklist Use the following criteria to evaluate an author’s purpose statement. Look for indications of the following: • Does the statement begin with signaling words? • Does the statement identify the research approach (quantitative, qualitative, or mixed)? • Does the statement clearly state the intent of the study? • Does the statement mention the participants? • Does the statement mention the research site? • Is the statement framed in a way that is consistent with the identified problem? If the study is qualitative, does the purpose statement do as follows? • Focus on a single phenomenon • Use an action verb to convey how learning will take place • Use neutral, nondirectional language • Provide a general definition of the central phenomenon If the study is quantitative, does the purpose statement do as follows? • Identify the variables under study • Provide a general definition of each key variable • Use words that connect the variables • Identify a theory If the study is mixed methods, does the purpose statement do as follows? • Discuss the reason(s) for mixing both quantitative and qualitative data • Include the characteristics of a good qualitative purpose statement (as listed above) © 2016 Laureate Education, Inc. Page 1 of 2 Research Theory, Design, and Methods Walden University • Include the characteristics of a good quantitative purpose statement (as listed above) • Indicate the specific method of collecting both quantitative and qualitative data © 2016 Laureate Education, Inc. Page 2 of 2 Article Public Service Motivation and Institutional-Occupational Motivations Among Undergraduate Students and ROTC Cadets Public Personnel Management 2014, Vol. 43(4) 442-458 © The Author(s) 2 0 14 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.com/journalsPermissions.nav DOI: 10.1 177/0091026014530270 ppm.sagepub.com ®SAGE Katherine M. Ngaruiya1, Anne-Lise Knox V elez1, Richard M. Clerkin’, and Jami Kathleen Taylor 2 A b strac t Given the current fiscal climate, budgetary pressures may have important implications for recruitment and retention of military personnel. In response to this issue, we join two literatures to study motivational differences in undergraduate college students and Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) cadets: Moskos’ Institutional and Occupational (l-O) enlistment motivation model and Kim et al.’s revised Public Service Motivation (PSM) scale. We survey ROTC cadets and undergraduates at a mid-size public university and find that PSM is higher for ROTC cadets than regular undergraduates. We also find that for ROTC cadets, the institutional motivators for enlistment correlate positively with the rational, normative, and affective dimensions of PSM. In addition, we find increases in the Occupational motivator and the compassion PSM dimension reduce the likelihood of being an ROTC cadet whereas the Institutional motivator and the self-sacrifice PSM dimension are positively related with being an ROTC cadet. Keywords public service motivation, motivation theory, workplace attitudes and behaviors, public management ‘N o rth Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA 2University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, USA Corresponding Author: Katherine M. Ngaruiya, Department of Public Administration, School o f Public and International Affairs, North Carolina State University, Caldwell Hall, Campus Box 8 102, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA. Email: kmngaruiya@ncsu.edu Ngaruiya et al. 443 In tr o d u c tio n Despite recent conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq, the U.S. military faces future funding cuts. Due to unsustainable budget deficits, President Obama’s administration recently proposed significant budget cuts to the Department of Defense (Dreazen, 2012). Budget cuts will likely affect salaries for military personnel and possible reductions in extrinsic motivators might pose barriers to recruitment, performance, and retention of personnel. This study investigates a potential way to mitigate these looming problems by con­ necting two streams of research that address the employment motivations of public sector workers. The first body of work is public service motivation (PSM). It has been used to assess the intrinsic motivations of individuals who pursue careers in the public sector. The second body of literature is derived from Moskos’ (1977, 1986) Institutional-Occupational (I-O) model. This literature has been used to explore the enlistment and retention motivations of a subset of public workers—military person­ nel. By joining these previously separate streams of research, it is hoped that dialogue between researchers in these two fields will provide substantive insights on career selection, performance, and the effect of reward systems. In this article, we first review the development of Moskos’ 1-0 model and PSM. We then test whether there is an overlap between PSM and the Institutional Dimension of Moskos’ model. We do so by administering an instrument consisting of PSM (Kim et al., 2012) and 1-0 questions to undergraduate students and Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) cadets at a mid-sized Midwestern university. The ROTC is a program offered at more than 1,000 colleges across the United States that prepares young adults to become officers in the U.S. military. “In exchange for a paid college educa­ tion and post-college career, cadets commit to serve in the Military after gradua­ tion. .. [and] each Service branch has its own take on ROTC” (Today’s Military, n.d.). Given the literature on military service and sacrifice, we expect that PSM and Moskos’ Institutional motivation to be more highly correlated among ROTC cadets than among other undergraduates. We then perform a logistic regression analysis to test whether we can predict the likelihood of a respondent being an ROTC cadet based on models that include the PSM and 1-0 factors. Although this is an explor­ atory research on a complex issue, we believe that the conclusions derived from this study are a first step in providing new insights on creating efficient and effective recruitment mechanisms. E n l i s t m e n t a n d R e t e n t i o n M o t i v a t i o n s in t h e M i l i t a r y A person’s decision to join the military is complex and is commonly motivated by a number of factors (Ginexi, Miller, & Tarver, 1994). The combined influences of “social, personal and organizational factors” affect military enlistment (Mehay, 1990, p. 364). These tangible (extrinsic) and intangible (intrinsic) motivators impact propen­ sity to serve in the military (Griffith, 2008). Tangible motivators include salary, ben­ efits, enlistment bonus, and money for college (Woodruff, Kelty, & Segal, 2006). Intangible motivators include desire for self-improvement, desire to serve others, 444 Public Personnel M anagem ent 43(4) aspiration to serve one’s country, and becoming disciplined and confident (Griffith, 2008; Lawrence & Legree, 1996). Researchers exploring these motivators have often categorized these motives based on Moskos’ 1-0 model (e.g., Griffith, 2008; Woodruff et al., 2006). While the 1-0 model is organizational in its level of analysis, its insights have been useful in analyzing the diverse individual level motivations about military service. The Institutional military is one in which soldiers serve in response to a call to duty and honor (Moskos, 1977; Woodruff et ah, 2006). In contrast to the Institutional military, Moskos identifies the Occupational military as one in which the free market dominates military service and its members (Moskos, 1977). Thus, a desire like patri­ otic duty could be an institutional motive while job training is an occupational-related influence. In general, intrinsic motivation is associated with Moskos’ su m m a tio n of “Institutional orientation” whereas the “Occupational orientation” relates to educa­ tional benefits, earning money, and receiving money as incentives to enlist. Moskos’ 1-0 model has been used to study recruitment and retention of military personnel by a range of scholars. For instance, Eighmey (2006) identified seven themes related to youth enlistment: benefits, fidelity (desire to serve community and duty to country), dignity (pride in work, working in environment free of discrimina­ tion), risk, family (approval/respect from family and friends), challenge, and adven­ ture. These themes were then transposed onto the Moskos’ 1-0 model; youth in the study distinguished between tangible and intangible aspects of self (Occupational) and other oriented goals (Institutional; Eighmey, 2006). Griffith (2008) notes that Institutionally motivated reservists are more likely to reenlist than their Occupationally motivated peers. Woodruff et al. (2006) found that Institutional motivators are cen­ trally important to determining enlistment propensity in high school seniors. Segal and Segal (2004) found additional enlistment factors for student populations. Students with fewer educational prospects after high school have a higher propensity to enlist. Conversely, individuals who performed well in high school and are children of college-educated parents are less likely to enlist. Although the Occupational vari­ ables (extrinsic values) have historically been used as the bait to draw in new military recruits in public relations and advertising campaigns, scholars have noted that more research should be devoted to studying the Institutional considerations (internal val­ ues) that lead to enlistment decisions (Eighmey, 2006). To add some depth to the dis­ cussion on internal values that effect enlistment decisions, we tie Moskos’ ideas to PSM. Military personnel are public sector workers who have largely been ignored in PSM research.1 The following section discusses the connection between PSM and the 1-0 model as it reviews the literature on PSM. PSM Vandenabeele (2007) defines PSM as “belief, values, and attitudes that go beyond self-interest or organizational interest, that concern the interest of a larger political entity and that motivate individuals to act accordingly whenever appropriate” (p. 547). It is commonly agreed that PSM is a multi-dimensional construct (Kim et al., 2012; Perry & Wise, 1990). As originally posited by Perry and Wise (1990), PSM consisted of three classes of motivators that spur public service: rational (pursuit of policy N g a r u iy a et al. 445 objectives), affective (emotional attachment to a group or community), and normative (a sense of duty or desire to “give back”). It is the normative aspect of PSM that may provide the closest connection to the institutional motivators related to military service. In Perry and Wise’s (1990) seminal work, PSM is not bounded by “locus of employ­ ment . . . but may be understood as an individual’s predisposition” (p. 368) to respond to motives to serve in primarily public institutions and organizations. PSM has been applied to motivational differences between public and private sector workers (e.g., Brewer & Selden, 1998; Clerkin & Coggburn, 2012; Houston, 2005; Perry & Wise, 1990). It has also been extended to address the motivations of nonprofit workers (Perry, 2000) and volunteers (Clerkin, Paynter, & Taylor, 2009; Coursey, Perry, Brudney, & Littlepage, 2008; Houston, 2005; Perry, Brudney, Coursey, & Littlepage, 2008). People who work or volunteer in government agencies and nonprofit organiza­ tions often have higher levels of PSM than do private sector employees. Although mediated by contextual factors such as whether the person fits the orga­ nization (Brewer, 2008; Bright, 2007; Wright & Pandey, 2008), research supports the notion that PSM is positively related to public/nonprofit sector job satisfaction and performance (Naff & Crum, 1999; Perry, Hondeghem, & Wise, 2010). It is also nega­ tively associated with employee attrition (e.g., Crewson, 1997; N aff & Crum, 1999; Steijn, 2008). PSM has also been used to investigate incentive preferences in public sector work­ ers. Some scholars have found an inverse relationship between PSM and valuation of monetary rewards (Bright, 2007, 2009; Karl & Sutton, 1998). However, Crewson (1997) notes a more nuanced relationship by finding that although high pay is impor­ tant for those in public service, other non-financial extrinsic incentives are less impor­ tant for public sector workers than private sector employees. This is consistent with Wise’s (2004) finding that public sector workers often have multiple motives to seek employment in the public sphere. This review of employment incentives provides another connection between the two literatures given that the Occupational dimension of the 1-0 model addresses extrinsic reward preferences. Recently, Kim and Vandenabeele (2010) propose clarifications to Perry’s (1996) original PSM measurement model to improve its psychometric reliability and validity. Kim and Vandenabeele’s (2010) measurement of PSM contains four dimensions as follows: attraction to public participation (APP), commitment to public values (CPV), compassion (COM), and self-sacrifice (SS). APP focuses on the extent to which indi­ viduals want to participate in the policy process or other activities that contribute to the larger society. CPV measures the extent to which an individual’s interest in public service is driven by an interest in public values like equity and ethics. The COM dimension is based on individual concern for the needs of specific individuals or groups and SS is related to altruistic and pro-social origins of PSM. Kim (2011) con­ cluded the true essence of PSM is the willingness to provide service to others without receiving tangible personal rewards in return. Adapting Perry’s (1996) 24 question scale, Kim (2011) later surveyed more than 2,000 Korean firefighters to confirm the PSM construct as having four dimensions 446 Public Personnel M anagem ent 43(4) (APM, CPV, COM, SS) that are based on instrumental, values-based and affective motifs as well as being altruistic and having pro-social origins. A recent article by Kim and a number of colleagues (2012) recommended changes to the PSM measurement tool. After conducting a cross-national study, they proposed a revised 20-item PSM survey instrument renaming the APP dimension to attraction to public service (APS; Appendix A). Kim et al.’s (2012) revised tool is used as the basis for the surveys and results presented in this article. Based on the literature on PSM and Moskos’ 1-0 model, holding all else constant, we hypothesize the following: Hypothesis 1: Within the ROTC sample, the Institutional motivators for enlistment will correlate positively with the normative dimension of PSM (CPV). Hypothesis 2: CPV will be higher for ROTC cadets than for undergraduate students. Hypothesis 3: The higher an individual’s CPV, the greater the likelihood that they will be an ROTC cadet. D a ta a n d M e th o d To investigate our hypotheses, we surveyed undergraduate students and ROTC cadets enrolled at a mid-sized public university in the Midwest. Our survey instrument com­ bined the 20-item PSM instrument developed by Kim et al. (2012) with Likert-type scale 1-0 questions adopted from work by Woodruff et al. (2006). While the PSM questions remained the same on surveys administered to each sample, the Moskos’ 1-0 questions were modified to account for the ROTC/Non ROTC status of our respon­ dents (Appendices B and C). In addition, the instrument contained demographic ques­ tions that captured the respondent’s race, gender, and religiosity. Data were collected via online administration of our instrument to 290 undergraduate and 104 ROTC stu­ dents during the fall semester of 2011. The undergraduate portion of the sample was drawn from a research pool of students enrolled in introductory American government courses. These courses are used to fill a “general education” requirement at the univer­ sity and thus they provide a sample of students that is reasonably reflective of the university’s undergraduate population.2 ROTC students were accessed with permis­ sion of their command structure. Pairwise partial correlations were performed to assess the relationships between the PSM dimensions and Moskos’ 1-0 motivators (Hypothesis 1) in the sample of ROTC cadets. An independent-samples test was performed to assess the differences in means between the ROTC respondents and the undergraduate students (Hypothesis 2). Logistic regression was used to predict the likelihood of being an ROTC cadet, using the PSM dimensions, Moskos’ 1-0 dimensions, and other demographic vari­ ables in the model (Hypothesis 3). The dependent variable is a dichotomous indicator of whether a student is in the ROTC (0 for not ROTC and 1 for ROTC). The follow­ ing section describes construction of the indices that comprise our independent variables. Ngaruiya et al. 447 T ab le 1. Control Variables Descriptive Statistics. White Religious Female n Overall Undergraduate ROTC 71% 17% 42% 384 67% 18% 47% 290 85% 15% 27% 94 Note. R O TC = Reserve O fficer Training Corps. Inde pe n de n t Variables o f Interest Cronbach’s alpha models internal consistency of an index based on average correla­ tion among items (Garson, 2012b). To assess the reliability of the various scales used in this study, we calculated the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the four Kim et al. (2012) PSM dimensions. Appendix A provides the indicators for each dimension. Per Garson (2012b), a lenient cutoff of .60 is common in exploratory research; alpha should be at least .70 or higher to retain an item in an “adequate” scale, and many researchers require a cutoff of .80 for a “good scale.” The reliability scores for the four PSM dimensions are .773 for APS, .672 for CPV, .731 for COM, and .781 for SS. Thus, APS, COM, and SS are considered adequate, but CPV is acceptable only at the exploratory level. PSM scores for each respondent were calculated based on their average scores for APS, CPV, COM, and SS dimensions. The reliability scores for Moskos’ 1-0 Dimensions are .821 for Institutional, indicating a high level of internal reliability and .721 for Occupational, indicating an adequate scale. Appendices B and C provide the indicators for these constructs. C ontrol Variables We include three control variables in our regression models, whether a respondent is White, whether they are female, and their level of religiosity to control for potential demographic differences between ROTC cadets and the undergraduate respondents. The descriptive statistics for the ROTC and undergraduate respondents are reported below in Table 1. ROTC cadets are more likely to be White, less religious, and less likely to be female than the undergraduate students in our sample. Analysis and Results ROTC C adet Pairwise C orrelations Analyses In our first hypothesis, we posit that the Moskos’ Institutional motivators for enlist­ ment will correlate positively with the normative dimension of PSM (CPV) within the ROTC sample. Pairwise correlations were performed on the ROTC sample to assess the relationships between the PSM Dimensions and Moskos’ 1-0 dimensions (see 448 Public Personnel M anagem ent 43(4) Partial Correlation Between Public Service Motivation Dimensions and Moskos’ Motivations ROTC Cadets. T a b le 2. APS APS CPV SS COM Institutional Occupational 1 .580** .625** .619** .281* -.222* CPV 1 ^92** 429** .220* -.116 SS 1 .506** .308* -.257* COM Institutional Occupational 1 .086 .013 1 -.101 1 Note, n = 94. R O TC = Reserve O fficer Training Corps; APS = attraction to public service; CPV = co m m itm ent to public values; C O M = compassion; SS = self-sacrifice. *p < .05. **p < .001, tw o-tailed test. Table 2).3 Within the ROTC sample, a small but statistically significant degree of cor­ relation was found between the CPV dimension of PSM and Moskos’ Institutional dimension. Thus, we find moderate support for Hypothesis 1. Two other PSM dimensions also have statistically significant correlations with Moskos’ Institutional motivation. APS and SS are positively correlated with the Institutional dimension. These additional positive correlations between the PSM dimensions and Moskos’ Institutional motivation suggest that Institutional motivation to join the military may actually be multi-dimensional. Examining motivations to join the military through the dimensions of PSM might give us a more nuanced under­ standing of Institutional motivation to join the military. The correlations between APS, and SS and the Occupational dimension were nega­ tive and statistically significant. The higher an ROTC cadets’ APS and SS, the lower their level of Occupational motivation to join the ROTC. Interestingly, Moskos’ 1-0 motivations are negatively (but not statistically significantly) correlated among the ROTC respondents. Difference o f M eans Tests To test Hypotheses 2, an independent-samples t test is performed to assess the differ­ ences in means of the CPV dimension of PSM between the ROTC respondents and the undergraduate students (see Table 3). We find that the CPV means in the two groups have statistically significant differences. As expected, ROTC cadets have a higher CPV mean (4.45) than do other undergraduates (4.29). This provides evidence in support of Hypothesis 2. We also find statistically significant differences between ROTC cadets and undergraduates in two other PSM dimensions, APS and SS. In both cases, ROTC cadets have higher levels of PSM than do undergraduates. Although our data help us establish this difference, we are unable to know whether this difference existed before enrolling in college, or if there is something in ROTC training that helps to develop and increase PSM levels in cadets that are not manifest in other undergraduates. 449 Ngaruiya et at. Table 3. D ifferences o f Means Between U ndergraduates and R O T C Cadets. D ifferences in means M n SD APS U ndergraduate ROTC 290 94 4.1834* 0.60503 4.3915 0.53136 CPV U ndergraduate ROTC 4.2886* 0.50577 94 4.4496 0.47026 290 4.0786 0.65562 94 4.0064 0.60851 3.5578** 0.82591 4.1711 0.64554 290 COM U ndergraduate ROTC SS U ndergraduate ROTC 290 94 In stitu tio n a l dim ension U ndergraduate ROTC 290 94 3.4853** 1.17500 4.5691 0.53557 O ccupational dim ension U ndergraduate ROTC 290 94 3.2230** 0.98039 2.6454 0.83693 N o te , n = 94. R O TC = Reserve O fficer Training Corps; APS = attraction to public service; CPV = com m itm ent to public values; C O M = compassion; SS = self-sacrifice. * p < .05. * * p < .0 0 1 , tw o-tailed test. We also checked for differences in Occupational and Institutional motivations between ROTC cadets and undergraduates. The Institutional motivators are signifi­ cantly higher in ROTC respondents, whereas Occupational motivators are signifi­ cantly higher in undergraduates. This finding potentially indicates that if the ROTC wanted to increase the number of cadets from the undergraduate population on cam­ pus, focusing on Occupational motivators would be more effective than Institutional or PSM motivators. Logistic Regressions To assess Hypothesis 3, four logistic regressions were utilized to predict ROTC mem­ bership in our combined sample of undergraduates and ROTC cadets. The dependent variable in each model is a dichotomous indicator of whether a respondent is a ROTC cadet (0 = not ROTC, 1 = ROTC). In each model, we include control variables and introduce different combinations of our variables of interest from Moskos’ 1-0 and Kim et al.’s (2012) PSM measurements. In Model 1, we include the 1-0 dimensions from Moskos. In Model 2, we include the four PSM dimensions. Given the positive correlation between Moskos’ Institutional dimension and most of the PSM dimen­ sions, in Model 3, we include the four PSM dimensions and the Occupational 450 Public Personnel M anagem ent 43(4) T a b le 4. Logistic Regression Analysis to Predict ROTC Cadets. Model 1 Odds ratio Model 2 z Odds ratio Model 3 z Odds ratio APS 1.054 0.13 1.112 CPV 1.387 0.88 1.386 COM SS Occupational Institutional W h ite Model 4 z Odds ratio 0.27 0.545 0.86 0.828 z -1.31 -0.41 0.277*** -4.06 0.323***-3.52 0.525t -1.79 5.56 4.629*** 5.12 3 507* * * 3.87 0.265*** 7.69 0 .586***-3.70 0.290*** -5.95 5.656*** -6.79 5 .104*** 6.76 1.154 0.37 2.790** 2.96 2.847** 2.94 1.287 0.60 5.176*** Religious 0.708 Female 0.613 -0.78 0.866 -0.37 0.774 -1.46 0.605 -1.68 0.613 Constant 0.017*** -4.1 1 0.010***-3.41 0.033* % C orre ctly classified 85.26 77.63 81.32 Proportional reduction e rro r 40.43 9.57 24.47 (%) -0.65 0.769 -1.60 0.709 -2.44 0.053+ -0.56 -0.95 -1.80 86.05 43.62 Note, n – 380. R O TC – Reserve O ffice r Training Corps; APS = attraction to public service; CPV = com m itm ent t o public values; C O M = compassion; SS = self-sacrifice. t p < . l . * p < .05. **p < . 0 1. ***p < .0 0 1, all tw o-tailed tests. dimension to see if the PSM dimensions have similar predictive ability to Moskos’ Institutional dimension. Finally, in Model 4, we include all six dimensions of interest to see if the PSM dimensions have direct effects on the likelihood of a respondent being in the ROTC while controlling for Moskos’ Institutional dimension. Control variables in all models include gender (whether the respondent is female), race (whether the respondent is White), and religious attendance of respondents (dichoto­ mized into once a week or more frequent attendance of religious services over the past year vs. less frequent or no attendance). All regression equations showed goodness of fit through a significant Omnibus test. Table 4 provides the results of the four logistic regressions. We turn to reviewing the results next. Model 1 includes the 1-0 dimensions and the three control variables. Only the 1-0 factors were found to be significant predictors of ROTC service. For this model, there was a proportional reduction in error of 40.43% compared with chance (Garson, 2012a). Model 2, which includes the four PSM dimensions (APS, CPV, COM, and SS) and the three control variables, finds that COM and SS are statistically significant, although in opposite directions. As SS increases, the likelihood of being an ROTC cadet increases. However, as COM increases, the likelihood of being an ROTC cadet decreases. In Model 2, the hypothesized relationship between CPV and ROTC service is not supported. We find that CPV is positively related to the likelihood of being an ROTC cadet but is not statistically significant. Although CPV is not statistically N g a ru iya et al. 451 significant, it performs in the expected direction in relation to ROTC service. Only one control variable in Model 2 is statistically significant, that is, being White increases the likelihood of being an ROTC cadet. The proportional reduction in error for this model is only a 9.57%, indicating that PSM, by itself, is not a strong predictor of whether a respondent is in the ROTC. In Model 3, we add Moskos’ Occupational dimension back into the model with the four PSM dimensions. The significance and tendency of the PSM variables do not change between Models 2 and 3; neither APS nor CPV is statistically significant, SS is positively related to the likelihood of being an ROTC cadet and COM is negatively related to being an ROTC cadet. Increases in the Occupational dimension decrease the likelihood of being an ROTC cadet. Finally, being White increases the likelihood of being an ROTC cadet. For this model, the proportional reduction in error is 24.47% compared with chance. In our final model, Model 4, in addition to the control variables, we regress all of the PSM and Moskos’ dimensions on being an ROTC cadet. Both of Moskos’ dimensions, Institutional (positively) and Occupational (negatively) are signifi­ cantly related to the likelihood of being an ROTC cadet. For the PSM dimensions, CPV and APS are still not statistically significantly related to the likelihood of being an ROTC cadet and SS is still statistically significant and positively related to being an ROTC cadet. Increases in the COM dimension still reduce the likelihood of being an ROTC cadet. However, with a z score o f -1.79 it is only statistically significant at the p = .1 level for a two-tailed test. Combining both the Moskos and PSM dimen­ sions to predict the likelihood of being an ROTC cadet results in a proportional reduction in error is 43.62%. Overall, our data do not support Hypothesis 3, in which we expected a positive relationship between CPV and ROTC service. Instead, we find that CPV is not related to this likelihood at all. In addition, the degree of explanation or reduction in error, when using PSM alone or with the Occupational dimension is lower than when we included Moskos’ Institutional dimension. In examining our results across the four models, we find that two dimensions of PSM (the higher an individual’s SS, the greater the likelihood of being an ROTC cadet, and the greater their COM, the lower their likelihood of being an ROTC cadet) and both 1-0 dimensions are related to the likelihood of a respondent being an ROTC cadet. Perhaps, the findings indicate that rather than PSM dimensions being a more nuanced measurement of Moskos’ Institutional dimension, they are picking up on a different set of motivations for ROTC service. D is c u s s io n a n d C o n c l u s i o n As previously stated, budget cuts will likely affect salaries for military personnel and may result in reductions in extrinsic motivators that might pose barriers to 452 Public Personnel M anagem ent 43(4) recruitment, performance, and retention of personnel in the U.S. military. But as Bright (2011) states, “public service motivation has the potential of transforming the way employees are recruited, motivated and retained in public organizations” (p. 11). Our findings provide credence to the argument that the military may be able to effectively diminish the role of monetary recruiting mechanisms. If the military con­ tinues to support policies in which they promote monetarily based recruitment tac­ tics, they may miss opportunities to recruit personnel motivated by intrinsic desires to serve their country. This suggests that the military should consider who they want to recruit as service people based on their motivations to serve the public. We test three hypotheses in this article, two o f which are supported by our analyses. We find that there is a positive correlation between Institutional motiva­ tions and CPV among ROTC cadets and that CPV is higher in ROTC cadets than in the general undergraduate population. There is no support for our third hypoth­ esis, as CPV increases, so does the likelihood o f a respondent being an ROTC cadet. Overall, three PSM dimensions (APS, CPV, and SS) are shown to be sig­ nificantly higher among ROTC cadets than among non-ROTC affiliated under­ graduate students (based on our difference o f means test). Overall, three PSM dimensions (APS, CPV, and SS) are shown to be significantly higher among ROTC cadets than among non-ROTC affiliated undergraduate students (based on our difference o f means test); although as an individual’s COM score increases, they are less likely to be an ROTC cadet. In addition, Moskos’ 1-0 dimensions are statistically significant indicators of the likelihood o f a respondent being an ROTC cadet. This study is unique in its application of PSM to a population minimally studied in the PSM field—those destined for military service. Although a significant body of PSM literature exists among government and nonprofit employees both in the United States and internationally, some gaps remain in testing the model across diverse popu­ lations of public servants. In addition, the findings indicate that combining the PSM construct and Moskos’ 1-0 model may provide a more holistic picture of the underly­ ing motivations of military recruits. Limitations This study is limited in its generalizability because it is a convenience sample of undergraduate students and ROTC cadets rather than a probability sample that is rep­ resentative of a university’s student body. In addition, the data are collected from a Midwestern university and the responses collected may not be reflective of a broader base of students from other colleges across the nation. That being said, given the exploratory nature of this study, our interesting results suggest a need to replicate these findings with more diverse samples to improve our confidence in generalizing the implications of this research. Ngaruiya et at. 4S3 Suggestions for Future Research There are a number of themes that emerge for future research based on this study. We unexpectedly find that ROTC cadets are significantly motivated by both affec­ tive dimensions of PSM, albeit in different directions. SS increases the likelihood of being an ROTC cadet, while COM decreases this likelihood. In addition, from Moskos’ 1-0 theory, Institutional factors or intrinsic motivations play a role in increasing the likelihood that a respondent is an ROTC cadet. However, the Occupational dimension decreases this likelihood. These findings have significant real world implications, as they provide credence to the argument that the military may be able to effectively diminish or limit the role monetary recruiting mecha­ nisms. Appealing to both a potential recruit’s SS motivation and motivation to be part of the Institutional military may increase the likelihood of the recruit joining the ROTC or even the regular military. Conversely, focusing on Occupational military motivations may either decrease the likelihood of a recruit joining the military or even yield a very different type of soldier. Given the exploratory nature of this study, there is ample room for scholars to replicate the methods of this study in public (and private) colleges across the country not only among ROTC cadets, but army recruits as well. Scholars have recommended that more research should be devoted to the Institutional considerations (internal values) that lead to enlistment decisions (e.g., Eighmey, 2006). The results from this study contribute to this body of literature and emerging scholarly debate. Kim (2011) concluded that the true essence of PSM is the willingness to provide service to others without receiving tangible personal rewards in return, which undergirds the SS dimension of PSM. This appears to be the case for ROTC cadets as well. Based on our analysis, SS and Moskos’ Institutional motiva­ tions for serving in the military are important drivers for joining the military. Further research is needed to assess and dissect the meaning behind this relationship and how these two motivations can be used to effect military recruitment, enlistment, and retention. Historically, monetary incentives have been used to draw in new military recruits through public relations and advertising campaigns. Although Occupational incen­ tives, such as education benefits, may encourage individuals to join the military, these motivators may not efficiently lead to greater rates of recruitment and retention of military personnel. The fiscal situation in the United States is at a key turning point. The Armed Forces are tasked with effectively conserving dwindling resources while retain­ ing the best and brightest of military personnel. This is no easy feat but one that presents a window of opportunity to question the underlying assumptions behind techniques, goals, and values of the military’s recruitment and retention efforts. 454 Public Personnel Management 43(4) Appendix A PSM Dimension Indicators fo r 20-Item Scale From Kim et al. (2012). PSM dimension Indicator APS apsl CPV COM SS Survey item 1admire people who initiate o r are involved in activities to aid my community. aps2 It is im portant to contribute to activities that tackle social problems. aps3 Meaningful public service is im portant to me. aps4 It is im portant fo r me to contribute to the common good. aps5 cpvl 1think equal opportunities fo r citizens are very important. 1am interested in helping to improve public service. cpv2 It is im portant that citizens can rely on the continuous provision of public services. cpv3 It is fundamental that the interests o f future generations are taken into account. cpv4 To act ethically is essential fo r public servants. cpv5 1 believe that public employees must always be aware of the legitimacy o f th e ir actions. cpv6 1 personally identify w ith the aim o f protecting individual liberties and rights. com 1 It is difficult fo r me to contain my feelings when 1 see people in distress. com2 1feel sympathetic to the plight o f the underprivileged. com3 1get very upset when 1 see oth er people being treated unfairly. com4 Considering the welfare o f others is very important. comS ssl 1 am prepared to make sacrifices fo r the good o f society. ss2 1 believe in putting civic duty before self. 1empathize w ith oth er people w ho face difficulties. ss3 1am willing to risk personal loss to help society. ss4 1would agree to a good plan to make a better life fo r the poor, even if it cost me money. Note. PSM – public service motivation; APS = attraction to public service; CPV = commitment to public values; COM = compassion; SS = self-sacrifice. Appendix B Moskos’ Institutional-Occupational Survey Items (ROTC). Variable Occupational Indicator Survey item c_jobloss Job loss was im portant in my decision to join the ROTC. c_noopt A lack of better options was im portant in my decision to join the ROTC. c_finprob Financial problems were im portant in my decision to join the ROTC. c_divorce Divorce was im portant in my decision to join the ROTC. (continued) 455 Ngaruiya et al. Appendix B (continued) Variable c_family c_bestopt c_loans c_money c_bonus Institutional Survey item Indicator c_serve c_patriot c_ adventure c_soldier The need to support my family was important in my decision to join the ROTC. The ROTC was the best available option to me. Repaying my college loans was important in my decision to join the ROTC. The money for college was important in my decision to join the ROTC. An enlistment bonus was important in my decision to join the ROTC. A desire to serve my country was important in my decision to join the ROTC. Patriotism was important in my decision to join the ROTC. The adventure o r challenge was important in my decision to join the ROTC. The desire to be a soldier was important in my decision to join the ROTC. Note. ROTC = Reserve Officer Training Corps. Appendix C Moskos’ Institutional-Occupational Survey Items (Undergraduates). Variable Occupational Institutional Indicator Survey item Job loss would be important in my decision to join the ROTC. A lack of better options would be important in my decision to join the ROTC. Financial problems would be important in my decision to join the finprob ROTC. Divorce would be important in my decision to join the ROTC. divorce The need to support my family would be important in my family decision to join the ROTC. The ROTC would be the best available option to me. bestopt Repaying my college loans would be important in my decision to loans join the ROTC. The money fo r college would be important in my decision to join money the ROTC. An enlistment bonus would be important in my decision to join bonus the ROTC. A desire to serve my country would be important in my decision serve to join the ROTC. Patriotism would be important in my decision to join the ROTC. patriot adventure The adventure o r challenge would be important in my decision to join the ROTC. The desire to be a soldier would be important in my decision to soldier join the ROTC. jobloss noopt Note. ROTC = Reserve Officer Training Corps. 456 Public Personnel M anagem ent 43(4) Authors’ N ote The grant from the University of Toledo’s Summer Research Awards and Fellowship Program was not contingent on any set o f findings. Declaration of Conflicting Interests The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article. Funding The author(s) disclosed receipt o f the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: A Grant (#203949) for US$11,393 from the University of Toledo’s Summer Research Awards and Fellowship Program funded data collection for this contribution. Notes 1. Braender and Andersen (2013) is a recent exception. Their study o f how deployment to a war zone changes an individual’s public service motivation (PSM) shows that deployment increases commitment to the public interest and decreases compassion. 2. In the Fall of 2011, the undergraduate student body at the Midwestern university was 50.2% male and 49.8% female; while it was 67% White, 21.1% Minority, and 4.1% Unknown Race/Ethnicity (Midwestern University, 2011). 3. Correlation data for the undergraduate students is available on request. References Braender, M., & Andersen, L. B. (2013). Does deployment to war affect public service moti­ vation? A panel study o f soldiers before and after their service in Afghanistan. Public Administration Review, 73, 466-477. Brewer, G. A. (2008). Employee and organizational performance. In J. L. Perry & A. Hondeghem (Eds.), Motivation in public management: The call o f public service (pp. 136-156). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Brewer, G. A., & Selden, S. C. (1998). Whistle blowers in the federal civil service: New evi­ dence of the public service ethic. Journal o f Public Administration Research and Theory, 8, 413-439. Bright, L. (2007). Does person-organization fit mediate the relationship between public ser­ vice motivation and the job performance of public employees? Review o f Public Personnel Administration, 27, 361-379. Bright, L. (2009). Why do public employees desire intrinsic workplace opportunities? Public Personnel Management, 38(3), 15-37. Bright, L. (2011). Does public service motivation affect the occupation choices o f public employees? Public Personnel Management, 40, 11-24. Clerkin, R. M., & Coggbum, J. D. (2012). The dimensions o f public service motivation and sec­ tor work preferences. Review o f Public Personnel Administration, 32, 209-235. Clerkin, R. M., Paynter, S., & Taylor, J. (2009). Public service motivation in undergraduate giv­ ing and volunteering decisions. American Review o f Public Administration, 39, 675-698. Coursey, D. H., Perry, J. L., Brudney, J. L., & Littlepage, L. (2008). Psychometric verification of Perry’s public service motivation instrument: Results for volunteer exemplars. Review o f Public Personnel Administration, 28, 79-90. N g a ru iy a et at. 457 Crewson, P. E. (1997). Public-service motivation: Building empirical evidence of incidence and effect. Journal o f Public Administration Research and Theory, 7, 499-518. Dreazen, Y. (2012). Pentagon cuts and a changing US military. The Atlantic. Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/intemational/archive/2012/01/pentagon-cuts-and-a-changingus-military/250997/ Eighmey, J. (2006). Why do youth enlist? Identification of underlying themes. Armed Forces & Society, 32, 307-328. Garson, G. D. (2012a). Binary and multinomial logistic regression. In Statnotes: Topics in mul­ tivariate analysis. Retrieved from http://faculty.chass.ncsu.edu/garson/PA765/logistic.htm Garson, G. D. (2012b). Reliability analysis. In Statnotes: Topics in multivariate analysis. Retrieved from http://faculty.chass.ncsu.edu/garson/PA765/reliab.htm Ginexi, E., Miller, A., & Tarver, S. (1994). A qualitative evaluation o f reasons fo r enlisting in the military: Interviews with new active duty recruits. Defense Manpower Data Center. Retrieved from http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?Location=U2&;doc=GetTRDoc. pdf&AD=ADA293470 Griffith, J. (2008). Institutional motives for serving in the U.S. army national guard: Implications for reemitment, retention and readiness. Armed Forces & Society, 34, 230-258. Houston, D. (2005). Walking the walk of public service motivation: Public employees and charitable gifts of time, blood and money. Journal o f Public Administration Research and Theory, 16, 67-86. Karl, K. A., & Sutton, C. L. (1998). Job values in today’s workforce: A comparison of public and private sector employees. Public Personnel Management, 27, 515-527. Kim, S. (2011). Testing a revised measure of public service motivation: Reflective versus for­ mative specification. Journal o f Public Administration Research and Theory, 21, 521-546. Kim, S., & Vandenabeele, W. (2010). A strategy for building public service motivation research internationally. Public Administration Review, 70, 701-709. Kim, S., Vandenabeele, W., Wright, B. E., Andersen, L. B., Cerase, F. P., Christensen, R. K., . . .De Vivo, P. (2012). Investigating the structure and meaning of public service motiva­ tion across populations: Developing an international instrument and addressing issues of measurement invariance. Journal o f Public Administration Research and Theory, 23, 79-102. Lawrence, G. H., & Legree, P. J. (1996). Military Enlistment Propensity: A Review o f Recent Literature (ARI Research Note 96-69). Alexandria, VA: U.S. Army Research Institute. Retrieved from http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA319605 Mehay, S. (1990). Determinants of enlistments in the U.S. Army Reserve. Armed Forces and Society, 16, 351-367. Midwestern University. (2011). 2011 facts at a glance. Retrieved from http://oir.utoledo.edu/ Facts/Fall%20201 l.pdf Moskos, C. (1977). From institution to occupation: Trends in military organization. Armed Forces and Society, 4, 41-50. Moskos, C. (1986). 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Public Administration Review, 70, 681-690. Perry, J. L., & Wise, L. R. (1990). The motivational bases of public service. Public Administration Review, 50, 367-373. Segal, D. R., & Segal, M. W. (2004). America’s military population. Population Bulletin 59(4) 3-40. Steijn, B. (2008). Person-environment fit and public service motivation. International Public Management Journal, 11, 13-27. Today’s Military, (n.d.). ROTC programs. Retrieved from http://www.todaysmilitary.com/ before-serving-in-the-military/rotc-programs Vandenabeele, W. (2007). Toward a theory of public service motivation: An institutional approach. Public Management Review, 9, 545-556. Wise, L. R. (2004). Bureaucratic posture: On the need for a composite theory of bureaucratic behavior. Public Administration Review, 64(6), 669-680. Woodruff, T., Kelty, R„ & Segal, D. (2006). Propensity to serve and motivation to enlist among American combat soldiers. Armed Forces & Society, 32, 353-366. Wright, B. E„ & Pandey, S. K. (2008). Public service motivation and the assumption of per­ son-organization fit: Testing the mediating effect of value congruence. Administration dt Society, 40, 502-521. A u th o r Biographies Katherine M. Ngaruiya is a PhD student and instructor in the Department of Public Administration at North Carolina State University. Her research interests center on organiza­ tional capacity building with special emphasis on include work motivations, cultural compe­ tency development, multicultural philanthropy, and program evaluation. She has published research in the Journal o f Career Development and Armed Forces & Society.. Anne-Lise Knox Velez is a doctoral candidate in public administration at North Carolina State University (NCSU). She has an MPA and an MArch from NCSU and a bachelor’s in architec­ ture from Virginia Tech. She has worked for the NCSU Fire Chasers Research Project since 2009 and is currently an undergraduate research methods instructor. Her research interests include environmental policies and decisions that affect the built environment; nonprofit stud­ ies, and motivational constructs. She has published research in the Inernational Journal o f Mass Emergencies and Disasters and Armed Forces & Society. Richard M. Clerkin is an associate professor in the Department of Public Administration at North Carolina State University. His research explores the motivations to engage in service in public and nonprofit settings. His work appears in journals such as Public Administration Review, American Review o f Public Administration, and Nonprofit Management and Leadership. Jami Kathleen Taylor is an assistant professor in the Department of Political Science and Public Administration at the University of Toledo. Her research focuses on public policy mak­ ing and why individuals engage in public service. Her work has appeared in State Politics & Policy Quarterly, Politics & Policy, Administration & Society, and The American Review o f Public Administration. Copyright of Public Personnel Management is the property of Sage Publications Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder’s express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use.

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