Response To Cobos

Response To Cobos

Osteoarthritis, Celebrex, and Ibuprofen

Osteoarthritis is a form of arthritis that mainly develops due to wear and tear on the cartilage found in bone joints and results in joint pains, especially for the joints that move the most such as the knees, fingers, and arms. According to Sharma (2021), the main symptoms of Osteoarthritis include pain and stiffness in the specified joint which results in limited movements for the patient due to the pain that they experience. Age progression resulting in wear and tear due to joint use is the main cause of Osteoarthritis and reversal of joint cartilage after wear is impossible which leaves the management of symptoms as the main form of treatment for Osteoarthritis.

First-Line Therapy for Osteoarthritis

The lack of treatment for Osteoarthritis results in symptom management as the main form of treatment from which NSAIDs are the main form of medicine for the patient since pain is the most prevalent and presents symptoms requiring management. Arden et al. (2021) acknowledge that topical and oral NSAIDs are the first line of treatment for the patient with dependence on the degree of pain that they are experiencing with the progression of their Osteoarthritis. Bariguian et al. (2020) identify that diclofenac is the best form of NSAID to be applied as a first-line treatment since it is effective and well-tolerated by many patients. The main mechanism of action for NSAIDs is pain-relieving through the inhibition of the enzyme cyclooxygenase which reduces the detection of the pain stimuli by the pain (Ghlichloo & Gerriets, 2019). Thus, the application of NSAIDs results in the patient having less feeling of their pain symptoms while also having their quality of life slightly elevated.

Celecoxib Benefits and Risks

Celecoxib is also an NSAID class of medication that assists in the management of pain and can be applied to patients with Osteoarthritis for their joint pains in order to relieve their pains and try to enhance Osteoarthritis management. According to Huang et al. (2021), celecoxib was found to be more effective and efficient in the reduction of pain when compared to diclofenac for patients with knee Osteoarthritis. The first benefit that the patient will gain through the use of celecoxib will be the elevation of their pain symptoms more effectively and efficiently as compared to other forms of NSAIDs, especially after the failure of ibuprofen. Pu et al. (2021) acknowledge that better analgesic efficacy and higher patient satisfaction levels are also experienced with the application of Celecoxib for pain management. Solomon et al. (2018) identify that the use of Celecoxib in the right dosage resulted in a lower risk for cardiovascular events, and gastrointestinal and also renal adverse events. Shin (2018) also points out that an increase in cardiovascular risk when using Celecoxib was found to only increase with a rise in patient dosage. Thus, the main information that should be included in a teaching plan to help the patient understand the risks and benefits of Celecoxib is the importance of adhering to the prescribed dosage and how risk increases with an increase in Celecoxib dosage.

Ibuprofen and Celecoxib

Celecoxib and ibuprofen serve NSAIDs that can be applied to the management of pain in patients which makes their pain reduction effect the most common similarity between these two types of medication. According to Aziz et al. (2018), both celecoxib and ibuprofen are NSAIDs applied for the analgesic, anti therapeutic and anti-inflammatory properties that they possess in their mechanisms of action. Aziz et al. (2018) identify that the main difference between ibuprofen and celecoxib is that celecoxib is selective and only targets COX 2 enzymes while ibuprofen is non-selective and targets both COX 1 and COX 2 enzymes. Thus, celecoxib is less likely to result in the development of stomach problems such as ulcers in the patient making it a good alternative to ibuprofen in patients who develop ulcers as well.


Aziz, N. D., Ouda, M. H., & Ubaid, M. M. (2018). Comparing the toxic effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (Celecoxib and Ibuprofen) on heart, liver, and kidney in rats. Asian J Pharm Clin Res11(6), 482-485.

Arden, N. K., Perry, T. A., Bannuru, R. R., Bruyère, O., Cooper, C., Haugen, I. K., … & Reginster, J. Y. (2021). Non-surgical management of knee osteoarthritis: comparison of ESCEO and OARSI 2019 guidelines. Nature Reviews Rheumatology17(1), 59-66.

Bariguian Revel, F., Fayet, M., & Hagen, M. (2020). Topical diclofenac, an efficacious treatment for osteoarthritis: a narrative review. Rheumatology and Therapy7(2), 217-236.

Ghlichloo, I., & Gerriets, V. (2019). Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).  StatPearls Publishing, Treasure Island (FL)

Huang, H., Luo, M., Liang, H., Pan, J., Yang, W., Zeng, L., … & Liu, J. (2021). Meta-analysis comparing celecoxib with diclofenac sodium in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Pain Medicine22(2), 352-362.

Pu, C., Jiang, X., Sun, Y., Lin, H., & Li, S. (2021). Efficacy and safety between early use and late use of celecoxib in hip osteoarthritis patients who receive total hip arthroplasty: a randomized, controlled study. Inflammopharmacology29(6), 1761-1768.

Shin, S. (2018). Safety of celecoxib versus traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in older patients with arthritis. Journal of Pain Research11, 3211.

Sharma, L. (2021). Osteoarthritis of the knee. New England Journal of Medicine384(1), 51-59.

Solomon, D. H., Husni, M. E., Wolski, K. E., Wisniewski, L. M., Borer, J. S., Graham, D. Y., … & PRECISION Trial Investigators. (2018). Differences in the safety of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in patients with osteoarthritis and patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized clinical trial. Arthritis & Rheumatology70(4), 537-546.

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