B R I E F C O N T E N T S
UNIT I Pathophysiologic Processes
1 Introduction to Pathophysiology, 1
2 Homeostasis, Allostasis, and Adaptive Responses to Stressors, 12
UNIT II Cellular Function
3 Cell Structure and Function, 26
4 Cell Injury, Aging, and Death, 59
5 Genome Structure, Regulation, and Tissue Differentiation, 77
6 Genetic and Developmental Disorders, 94
7 Neoplasia, 117
UNIT III Defense
8 Infectious Processes, 141
9 Inflammation and Immunity, 158
10 Alterations in Immune Function, 194
11 Malignant Disorders of White Blood Cells, 215
12 HIV Disease and AIDS, 233
UNIT IV Oxygen Transport, Blood Coagulation, Blood Flow, and Blood Pressure
13 Alterations in Oxygen Transport, 259
14 Alterations in Hemostasis and Blood Coagulation, 298
15 Alterations in Blood Flow, 313
16 Alterations in Blood Pressure, 337
UNIT V Cardiac Function
17 Cardiac Function, 354
18 Alterations in Cardiac Function, 382
19 Heart Failure and Dysrhythmias: Common Sequelae of Cardiac Diseases, 411
20 Shock, 434
UNIT VI Respiratory Function
21 Respiratory Function and Alterations in Gas Exchange, 451
22 Obstructive Pulmonary Disorders, 478
23 Restrictive Pulmonary Disorders, 499
UNIT VII Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Homeostasis
24 Fluid and Electrolyte Homeostasis and Imbalances, 521
25 Acid–Base Homeostasis and Imbalances, 541
UNIT VIII Renal and Bladder Function
26 Renal Function, 551
27 Intrarenal Disorders, 575
28 Acute Kidney Injury and Chronic Kidney Disease, 593
29 Disorders of the Lower Urinary Tract, 609
UNIT IX Genital and Reproductive Function
30 Male Genital and Reproductive Function, 626
31 Alterations in Male Genital and Reproductive Function, 641
32 Female Genital and Reproductive Function, 656
33 Alterations in Female Genital and Reproductive Function, 671
34 Sexually Transmitted Infections, 689
UNIT X Gastrointestinal Function
35 Gastrointestinal Function, 697
36 Gastrointestinal Disorders, 720
37 Alterations in Function of the Gallbladder and Exocrine Pancreas, 742
38 Liver Diseases, 754
UNIT XI Endocrine Function, Metabolism, and Nutrition
39 Endocrine Physiology and Mechanisms of Hypothalamic-Pituitary Regulation, 783
40 Disorders of Endocrine Function, 799
41 Diabetes Mellitus, 815
42 Nutritional and Metabolic Disorders, 838
UNIT XII Neural Function
43 Structure and Function of the Nervous System, 850
44 Acute Disorders of Brain Function, 891
45 Chronic Disorders of Neurologic Function, 915
46 Alterations in Special Sensory Function, 936
47 Pain, 955
UNIT XIII Neuropsychological Function
48 Neurobiology of Psychotic Illnesses, 971
49 Neurobiology of Nonpsychotic Illnesses, 989
UNIT XIV Musculoskeletal Support and Movement
50 Structure and Function of the Musculoskeletal System, 1001
51 Alterations in Musculoskeletal Function: Trauma, Infection, and Disease, 1020
52 Alterations in Musculoskeletal Function: Rheumatic Disorders, 1042
UNIT XV Integumentary System
53 Alterations in the Integumentary System, 1058
54 Burn Injuries, 1093
Evolve Student Resources for Banasik: Pathophysiology, 6th Edition, include the following:
• Review questions with rationales.
• Key Points.
• Glossary with audio pronunciations.
• Answers to key questions.
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PATHOPHYSIOLOGY TH EDITION6
JACQUELYN L. BANASIK, PhD, ARNP Associate Professor College of Nursing
Washington State University Spokane, Washington
LEE-ELLEN C. COPSTEAD, PhD, RN Professor Emerita
Department of Nursing College of Nursing and Health Sciences
University of Wisconsin—Eau Claire Eau Claire, Wisconsin
3251 Riverport Lane St. Louis, Missouri 63043
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY, SIXTH EDITION ISBN: 978-0-323-35481-3
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Brent A. Banasik, PhD, MA, BS Scientist Chemistry Banasik Consulting Seattle, Washington
Brianne N. Banasik, BS Environmental Science, MS Marine Resources Management
Research Associate Pediatric Vaccinology University of Texas Medical Branch Galveston, Texas
Jacquelyn L. Banasik, PhD, ARNP Associate Professor College of Nursing Washington State University Spokane, Washington
Robin Y. Beeman, BSN, MSN, PhD Chair and Professor Nursing University of Wisconsin—Eau Claire Eau Claire, Wisconsin
Cheryl L. Brandt, PhD, RN, ACNS-BC Professor College of Nursing and Health Sciences University of Wisconsin—Eau Claire Eau Claire, Wisconsin
Ann Futterman Collier, PhD Associate Professor and Chair Psychological Sciences Northern Arizona University Flagstaff, Arizona
Lee-Ellen C. Copstead, PhD, RN Professor Emerita Department of Nursing College of Nursing and Health Sciences University of Wisconsin—Eau Claire Eau Claire, Wisconsin
Carol L. Danning, MD Staff Rheumatologist Rheumatology Department Gundersen Health Systems La Crosse, Wisconsin
Michael R. Diestelmeier, MD Fellow American Academy of Dermatology Dermatologist, Retired Mayo Clinic Health System Eau Claire, Wisconsin
Ruth E. Diestelmeier, RN, MSN Clinical Instructor Department of Nursing University of Wisconsin—Eau Claire Eau Claire, Wisconsin
C O N T R I B U T O R S
Roberta J. Emerson, PhD, RN Associate Professor, Retired Washington State University College of Nursing Spokane, Washington
Linda Felver, PhD, RN Associate Professor School of Nursing Oregon Health & Science University Portland, Oregon
Rosemary A. Jadack, PhD, RN Professor Nursing University of Wisconsin—Eau Claire Eau Claire, Wisconsin
Debra A. Jansen, PhD, RN Associate Dean, Professor College of Nursing and Health Sciences University of Wisconsin—Eau Claire Eau Claire, Wisconsin
Marie L. Kotter, PhD, MS, BS Professor Emeritus Health Sciences Weber State University Ogden, Utah
Teresa Grigsby Loftsgaarden, MSN, RN, OCN,ONN-CG
Oncology Nurse Navigator Regional Cancer Center Sacred Heart Hospital Eau Claire, Wisconsin
Joni D. Marsh, BSN, MN Advanced Registered Nurse Practitioner Medical Oncology Summit Cancer Centers Spokane, Washington
Benjamin J. Miller, PhD, ARNP, FNP-C, ACNPC, ENP-C
Assistant Professor Seattle University Seattle, Washington
Sarah Ogle, DO, MS Banner University Medical Center-Phoenix University of Arizona College of Medicine
Phoenix Phoenix, Arizona
Nirav Patel, MD Assistant Professor, Infectious Diseases and
Critical Care Medicine Internal Medicine Saint Louis University School of Medicine; Chief Medical Officer SSM Health Saint Louis University Hospital; Infection Control Officer/Director of
Antibiotic Stewardship SSM Health Saint Louis University Hospital Saint Louis, Missouri
Faith Young Peterson, BSN, MSN, MPA, CFNP
Family Nurse Practitioner Marsing, Idaho
Cheryl Rockwell, RN, MSN Clinical Assistant Professor Nursing Department Indiana University-Purdue University at
Fort Wayne; Staff/Clinical Nurse Surgical Trauma Intensive Care Unit Parkview Health Systems Fort Wayne, Indiana
Samantha Cody Russell, Psychology, MA Graduate Student Psychological Sciences Northern Arizona University Flagstaff, Arizona
Jeffrey S. Sartin, MD Consulting Physician Infectious Diseases Infectious Disease and Epidemiology
Associates; Consulting Physician Infectious Diseases Nebraska Medicine; Consulting Physician Infectious Diseases CHI Hospitals Omaha, Nebraska
Lorna L. Schumann, PhD Heritage UGM Women and Children’s
Clinic Medical Clinic Heritage Health Coeur d’Alene, Idaho
Susan G. Trevithick, RN, MS, NE-BC Compliance Officer VA Salt Lake City Healthcare System Salt Lake City, Utah
Marvin Van Every, MD Staff Urologist Urology Department Gundersen Health Systems La Crosse, Wisconsin
Linda D. Ward, PhD, FNP-C Assistant Professor College of Nursing Washington State University Spokane, Washington
Brianne N. Banasik, MS Research Associate Pediatric Vaccinology University of Texas Medical Branch Galveston, Texas
Deb Cipali, RN, BSN, MSN, EdD(c) Des Moines Area Community College Nursing Lab Coordinator/Adjunct Professor Ankeny, Iowa
Janie Corbitt, RN, MLS Milledgville, Georgia
Maria Fleurdeliz Cuyco, BS Instructor Preferred College of Nursing Los Angeles, California
Abimbola Farinde, PhD Professor Columbia Southern University Orange Beach, Alabama
Annette Gunderman, DEd, MSN, RN Associate Professor of Nursing Bloomsburg University Bloomsburg, Pennsylvania
Barbara Hunter, RN, MSN School of Nursing, Klamath Falls Campus Oregon Health & Science University Klamath Falls, Oregon
Sandra L. Kaminski, MS, PA-C Assistant Professor Seton Hall University School of Health and Medical Sciences; Physician Assistant VA NJ Healthcare System Medical Service/Infections Disease Clark, New Jersey
Steven Krau, PhD, RN, CNE Associate Professor Vanderbilt School of Nursing Nashville, Tennessee
Clarice Perry, MS Research Associate Pediatric Vaccinology University of Texas Medical Branch Galveston, Texas
R E V I E W E R S
Janet Pinkelman, MSN, RNC-Maternal Newborn Nursing
Professor of Nursing Owens Community College Toledo, Ohio
Linda Turchin, RN, MSN, CNE Associate Professor of Nursing Fairmont State University Fairmont, West Virginia
Kim Webb, MN, RN Adjunct Nursing Instructor Pioneer Technology Center Ponca City, Oklahoma
Janice Williams, RN, ACNS-BC, CDE Professor of Nursing and Program Director Armstrong McDonald School of Nursing College of the Ozarks Point Lookout, Missouri
The pace of scientific discovery in health and medicine continues to transform our understanding of physiology and disease. To be clinically relevant and useful to health care students and professionals, a text must synthesize a vast amount of detailed knowledge into overarching concepts that can be applied broadly. As in previous editions, the goal of the sixth edition of Pathophysiology is to include recent and relevant information on anatomy, biochemistry, cell physiology, genomics, and pathophysiology while not overwhelming the reader. Attention is given to major concepts relevant to clinical practice while still providing enough detail for deep understanding.
ORGANIZATION Pathophysiology uses a systems approach to content, beginning with a review of normal anatomy and physiology, followed by pathophysiology and application of concepts to specific disorders. The text is organized into 15 units, each of which includes a particular body system or group of interrelated body systems and the pertinent pathophysiologic concepts and disorders.
FEATURES An understanding of normal structure and function of the body is necessary for any detailed understanding of its abnormalities and pathophysiology. The first chapter in most units includes a fully illustrated review of normal physiology. Age-related concepts are highlighted in boxes titled Geriatric Considerations and Pediatric Considerations.
Each chapter opens with Key Questions, which are designed to alert the reader to important conceptual questions that will be discussed in the chapter. Although the chapters are meant to be read from beginning to end to develop an understanding of the material, the text also serves as a reference for looking up specific content. Chapter Outlines are included at the beginning of each chapter to help the reader locate specific content. Within every chapter, Key Points are identified at the end of every major discussion and are presented in short bulleted lists. These recurring summaries help readers to focus on the main points.
Nearly 900 illustrations elucidate both normal physiology and pathophysiologic changes. The entire book is in full color, with color
used generously in the illustrations to better explain pathophysiologic concepts.
A study of pathophysiology requires a new vocabulary, and many of these terms are defined in a comprehensive Glossary, which appears at the end of the text. Common prefixes and suffixes as well as root words are included in the back matter to help with basic understanding of the language of pathophysiology.
ANCILLARIES Student Learning Resources on Evolve The student section of the book’s website hosted on Evolve offers nearly 700 Student Review Questions in a variety of question formats, an Audio Glossary, Animations to help readers visualize pathophysiologic processes, Case Studies with questions, and Key Points Review. Visit the Evolve website at http://evolve.elsevier.com/Banasik/pathophysiology.
Study Guide Pathophysiology can be a daunting subject for students because of the large volume of factual material to be learned. The student Study Guide is designed to help students focus on important pathophysiologic concepts. Questions to check recall of normal anatomy and physiology are included for each chapter. A number of activities that help the student focus on similarities and differences between often-confused pathologic processes are included. More than 1500 self-assessment test questions with answers are included to help students check their understanding and build confidence for examinations. Case studies, with more than 250 questions including rationales for correct and incorrect answers, are used to help students begin to apply pathophysi- ologic concepts to clinical situations.
Instructor Learning Resources on Evolve The Instructor Learning Resources on Evolve provide a number of teaching aids for instructors who require the text for their students. The materials include a Test Bank presented in Exam View with approximately 1200 test items, a Teach for Nurses instructor manual detailing the resources available to instructors for their lesson planning, a PowerPoint lecture guide with more than 4000 slides with integrated case studies and audience response questions to facilitate classroom presentations, and an Image Collection of more than 900 color images from the text.
P R E F A C E
Revising this 6th edition of the text has been possible because of the tremendous dedication of authors, artists, reviewers, and editors. Sincere gratitude goes to all who helped with this and previous editions. In particular, grateful appreciation is extended to all of the contributing authors who have given exhaustively of their time over many editions over the decades. Thank you to the many thoughtful experts who gave their time to read and critique manuscripts and help ensure excellence in chapter content throughout the text.
Grateful recognition is made to the staff at Elsevier: Kellie White, Executive Content Strategist; Jennifer Wade, Content Development Specialist; Jeffrey Patterson, Publishing Service Manager; Carol O’Connell, Book Production Specialist; Renee Duenow, Book Designer; and Vikraman Palani, Multimedia Producer.
We would like to recognize those who provided a foundation for the revised text through their contributions to earlier editions: Arnold A. Asp, Donna Bailey, Barbara Bartz, Linda Belsky-Lohr, Tim Brown, Carolyn Spenee Cagle, Karen Carlson, Katherina P. Choka, Arnold Norman Cohen, Cynthia F. Corbett, Lorri Dawson, Leslie Evans, Patricia Garber, Jane Georges, Karen Groth, Christine M. Henshaw, Carolyn Hoover, Jo Annalee Irving, Marianne Genge Jagmin, Debby Kaaland, Naomi Lungstrom, Rick Madison, Anne Roe Mealey, David Mikkelsen, Carrie Miller, Linda Denise Oakley, Maryann Pranulis, Mark Puhlman, Edith Randall, Bridget Recker, Cleo Richard, Dawn Rondeau, Mary Sanguinetti-Baird, Billie Marie Severtsen, Jacqueline Siegel, Gary Smith, Sheila Smith, Martha Snider, Pam Springer, Angela Starkweather, Patti Stec, Julie Symes, Lorie Wild, and Debra Winston-Heath.
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