NUR641E MID TERM GRADED 96% correct

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NUR641E MID TERM GRADED 96% correct

NUR641E MID TERM GRADED 96% correct

NUR641E MID TERM GRADED 96% correct

1. Low
plasma albumin causes edema as a result of a reduction in which pressure?

Capillary hydrostatic

Interstitial hydrostatic

Plasma oncotic

Interstitial oncotic

• Question
Points: 2.0 / 2.0

2. An
increase of carbon dioxide in arterial blood causes chemoreceptors to stimulate
the respiratory centers to:

decrease respiratory rate.

increase respiratory rate.

develop hypocapnia.

develop hypercapnia.

• Question
Points: 2.0 / 2.0

3. What is
an example of compensatory hyperplasia?

Hepatic cells increase cell division after part of the liver
is excised.

Skeletal muscle cells atrophy as a result of paralysis.

The heart muscle enlarges as a result of hypertension.

The size of the uterus increases during pregnancy.

• Question
Points: 2.0 / 2.0

4. Bacteria
that produce endotoxins that stimulate the release of inflammatory mediators
that produce fever are called

pyrogenic bacteria.

true bacteria.

exotoxins.

spirochetes.

• Question
Points: 2.0 / 2.0

5. Which
NSAID is generally considered the safest for use in patients with coronary
artery disease?

Celecoxib

Indomethacin

Naproxen

Acetaminophen

• Question
Points: 2.0 / 2.0

6. Cell wall
inhibitors include all of the following except

penicillins.

cephalosporins.

carbapenems.

tetracylclines.

• Question
Points: 2.0 / 2.0

7. In the
immediate postnatal period, infants lose approximately 5% of body weight due to

loss of body water

inability of the body to digest nutrients

hemolysis of red blood cells

poor sucking reflex

• Question
Points: 2.0 / 2.0

8. Heparin
exerts its therapeutic action by:

upregulating the activity of one of the body’s natural
anticoagulant molecules, antithrombin III.

deactivating calcium-dependent clotting factors.

inducing prothrombin formation.

inducing the formation of fibrin.

• Question
Points: 2.0 / 2.0

9. Pulmonary
hypertension:

shows an enlarged pulmonary artery.

involves deep vein thrombosis.

shows right ventricular hypertrophy.

Shows an enlarged pulmonary artery and right ventricular
hypertrophy.

10. Which of
the following factors do not influence bioavailability?

First-pass hepatic metabolism

Solubility of the drug

Bioequivalence

Chemical instability

11. Which of
the following is true regarding prodrugs?

They are affected considerably by renal function.

They are better than amateur drugs.

They are designed to overcome undesirable properties of an
active drug.

They may be more effective in patients with liver
dysfunction.

12. When
looking at arterial blood gas readings, you discover the following: pH 7.26,
pCO2 56, HCO3 24. What condition are you dealing with?

Respiratory alkalosis

Metabolic acidosis

Metabolic alkalosis

Respiratory acidosis

• Question
Points: 2.0 / 2.0

13. How many
months does it take for the newborn to be sufficiently protected by antibodies
produced by its own B cells?

1 to 2

4 to 5

6 to 8

10 to 12

• Question
Points: 2.0 / 2.0

14. What
mechanism can cause hypernatremia?

Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone

Hypersecretion of aldosterone

Brief bouts of vomiting or diarrhea

Excessive diuretic therapy

15. In the
absence of susceptibility data for an acute infection, the choice of an
antimicrobial drug is mostly influenced by

the site of infection and the patient’s history.

the sensitivity report and the colony count.

the source of the infection and the color of exudate.

the host defense mechanism and the immune response.

16. Which of
the following increases the potential of cardiac toxicity if taken concurrently
with digoxin?

Chloride

Potassium

Sodium

Zinc

• Question
Points: 2.0 / 2.0

17.When looking at arterial blood gas readings, you discover
the following: pH 7.75, pCO2 24, HCO3 40. What condition are you dealing with?

Respiratory alkalosis

Metabolic acidosis

Metabolic alkalosis

Respiratory acidosis

• Question
Points: 0.0 / 2.0

18.Which of the following statements is true regarding
bioavailability?

It has little effect on the pharmacokinetics of
orally-administered drugs.

It is a drug-specific property; therefore, bioavailability
will be the same regardless of the dosage form used.

IV-administered drugs have a bioavailability of between 50
and 75 percent.

It is defined as the amount of administered drug that is
available to reach the site of action.

Question Points: 2.0 / 2.0

19.Which of the following drugs are not considered for use
with angina?

Beta blockers

Calcium channel blockers

ACE inhibitors

Nitrates

• Question
Points: 2.0 / 2.0

20.The primary role of cytochrome p-450, in the liver, is
to:

stimulate steroid release as a stress response.

deactivate and detoxify medications and other substances.

produce fibrinogen, prothrombin, and factor V.

eliminate amino acids, forming urea.

• Question
Points: 2.0 / 2.0

21.Which antimicrobial should be avoided in children because
it is deposited in tissues undergoing calcification and can stunt growth?

Tetracycline

Ciprofloxacin

Vancomycin

Amoxicillin

• Question
Points: 2.0 / 2.0

22.Causes of hyperkalemia include:

hyperparathyroidism and malnutrition.

vomiting and diarrhea.

renal failure and Addison’s disease.

hyperaldosteronism and Cushing’s disease.

• Question
Points: 2.0 / 2.0

23.Which statement is true regarding the pharmacokinetics of
drug administration?

The immature liver or kidneys of the very young may
accelerate drug metabolism and excretion.

Medications enter the body in solid form and change into
solution for absorption and utilization.

It includes medication absorption, distribution to tissues,
metabolism, and elimination from the body.

A therapeutic effect occurs as the medication reaches the
target cell.

• Question
Points: 2.0 / 2.0

24.A patient with type 1 diabetes has been made NPO after
midnight for surgery. Knowing that the patient needs to continue the insulin
pump to prevent diabetic ketoacidosis, what would be an expectation of
treatment?

Bedtime snack before midnight

Dextrose containing intravenous fluids

2am glucose check followed by apple juice if needed

Discontinue the insulin pump

Question Points: 2.0 / 2.0

25.The major therapeutic actions of NSAIDS include all of
the following except

reduction of inflammation.

reduction of pain.

reduction of fever.

reduction of clotting factors.

• Question
Points: 2.0 / 2.0

26. A
68-year-old male has COPD with moderate airway obstruction. Despite using
salmeterol daily, as prescribed, he reports continued symptoms of shortness of
breath with mild exertion. Which one of the following agents would be an
appropriate addition to his current therapy?

Systemic corticosteroids

Albuterol

Tiotropium

Roflumilast

Theophylline

• Question
Points: 2.0 / 2.0

• Instructor
Feedback: Also a correct answer.

27. High
altitudes may produce hypoxemia by:

right-to-left shunts

atelectasis.

decreased oxygen inspiration.

emphysema.

• Question
Points: 2.0 / 2.0

28. Which of
the following corticosteroids has the shortest half-life and thus must be dosed
most frequently?

Dexamethasone

Hydrocortisone

Methylprednisolone

Prednisone

• Question
Points: 2.0 / 2.0

29. Aldosterone
directly increases the reabsorption of (select all that apply):

magnesium.

calcium.

sodium.

water.

• Question
Points: 2.0 / 2.0

30. Which of
the following agents is considered a CYP3A4 inhibitor and should be used with
caution in patients taking CYP3A4 substrates?

Phenytoin

Amiodarone

Carbamazepine

Rifampin

• Question
Points: 2.0 / 2.0

31. Which of
the following agents is used to treat hypercalcemia of malignancy?

Activated vitamin D

Pamidronate (Aredia)

Hydrochlorothiazide

Kayexalate

• Question
Points: 2.0 / 2.0

32. A drug with
a half-life of 10 hours is administered by continuous intravenous infusion.
Which of the following best approximates the time for the drug to reach steady
state?

10 hours

30 hours

40 hours

60 hours

• Question
Points: 2.0 / 2.0

• Instructor
Feedback: Answer is correct.

33. What causes
the rapid change in the resting membrane potential to initiate an action
potential?

Potassium gates open, and potassium rushes into the cell,
changing the membrane potential from negative to positive.

Sodium gates open, and sodium rushes into the cell, changing
the membrane potential from negative to positive.

Sodium gates close, allowing potassium into the cell to
change the membrane potential from positive to negative.

Potassium gates close, allowing sodium into the cell to
change the membrane potential from positive to negative.

• Question
Points: 2.0 / 2.0

34. Which
condition poses the highest risk for a cerebrovascular accident (CVA)?

Insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus

Hypertension

Polycythemia

Smoking

Question Points: 2.0 / 2.0

35. What is the
action of calcitonin?

Increases metabolism.

Decreases metabolism.

Increases serum calcium.

Decreases serum calcium.

• Question
Points: 2.0 / 2.0

36. Which stage
of infection is occurring when the immune and inflammatory responses are
triggered?

Incubation period

Prodromal stage

Invasion period

Convalescence

• Question
Points: 2.0 / 2.0

37. All of the
following can be a likely cause of respiratory acidosis except:

emphysema.

pulmonary edema.

barbiturate overdose.

extreme fear and anxiety.

Question Points: 2.0 / 2.0

38. The leading
cause of death from a curable infectious disease throughout the world is

pneumonia.

tuberculosis.

HIV infection.

influenza.

• Question
Points: 2.0 / 2.0

39. Which of
the following best describes the mechanism of action of warfarin?

Directly inhibits factor Xa

Inhibits factors II, VII, IX, and X

Blocks the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin

Upregulates antithrombin III

• Question
Points: 2.0 / 2.0

40. Hypomagnesemia
occurs when serum magnesium concentration is less than

1.0 mEq/L.

1.5 mEq/L

1. 0 mEq/L.

1. 0 mEq/L.

• Question
Points: 2.0 / 2.0

41. What is the
direct action of atrial natriuretic hormone? (Select all that apply.)

Sodium retention

Sodium excretion

Water retention

Water excretion

• Question
Points: 2.0 / 2.0

42. Which
method of drug administration can have immediate effects and requires lower
doses compared to oral or parenteral administration?

Intravenous

Sublingual

Transdermal

Inhalation

• Question
Points: 2.0 / 2.0

43. Pulmonary
emboli do not cause which of the following?

Obstruct blood supply to lung parenchyma

Have origins from thrombi in the legs

Occlude pulmonary vein branches

Occlude pulmonary artery branches

• Question
Points: 2.0 / 2.0

44. Which
factor is responsible for the hypertrophy of the myocardium associated with
hypertension?

Increased norepinephrine

Adducin

Angiotensin II

Insulin resistance

• Question
Points: 2.0 / 2.0

45. The nurse
has a patient who has been on multidrug therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis.
When planning patient education, the nurse knows the patient needs to watch for
which symptom of an adverse effect of multidrug therapy?

Hearing loss

Changes in vision

Generalized pruritus

Jaundice

• Question
Points: 2.0 / 2.0

46. The most
common cause of lower respiratory tract infection is

aspiration of oropharyngeal secretions.

not receiving the vaccine.

refusing to cough and take deep breaths.

remaining in bed until postop day two.

• Question
Points: 2.0 / 2.0

47. Death from
influenza usually results from

high temperature.

dehydration.

pneumonia.

metabolic alkalosis.

• Question
Points: 2.0 / 2.0

48. Which
statement is true regarding the half-life of medications?

Doubling the dose will double the medication half-life.

Approximately 2 half-lives are required for a medication to
be completely eliminated.

Patients with renal or hepatic disease usually have
decreased half-lives.

The half-life of a drug helps determine how often the drug
is to be administered.

• Question
Points: 2.0 / 2.0

49. The spread
of microorganisms from mother to the baby across the placenta is termed

direct transmission.

vertical transmission.

horizontal transmission.

indirect transmission.

• Question
Points: 2.0 / 2.0

50. Which class
of diuretics treats hypertension by increasing sodium and water retention?

Loop diuretics

Thiazide diuretics

Potassium sparing diuretics

Aldosterone inhibiting diuretics

• Question
Points: 2.0 / 2.0

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