NSG5003 Advanced Pathophysiology All Weeks Knowledge Checks

NSG5003 Advanced Pathophysiology All Weeks Knowledge Checks

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NSG 5003 Advanced Pathophysiology

Week 1 Knowledge Check

Question 1 An organelle that is responsible for metabolism of cellular energy is referred to which of the following cell structures?

Question 1 options:

A) Golgi complex

B) Mitochondrion

C) Endoplasmic reticulum

D) Nucleolus

Question 2 Which of the following options is a chemical agent that causes cell injury?

Question 2 options:

A) Radiation

B) Hypoxia

C) Bacteria

D) Poison

Question 3 Breast changes of a girl in puberty or of a pregnant woman describe which type of cellular adaptation?

Question 3 options:

A) Hypertrophy

B) Dysplasia

C) Hyperplasia

D) Metaplasia

Question 4 An active process of programed cellular self-destruction (cell death) describes which of the following cell functions

Question 4 options:

Apoptosis

Necrosis

Adaptation

Fragmentation

Question 5 When extracellular fluid is hypotonic what is the resulting impact on the cell?

Question 5 options:

A) Cell swelling

B) No change in cell size

C) Cell shrinkage

D) Cell death

NSG 5003 Advanced Pathophysiology

Week 2 Knowledge Check

Question 1 The immune response is characterized by the activation of which two types of immunocytes?

Question 1 options:

A) T cells and cytokin

B) B cells and T cells

C) IgG and IgE

D) Neutrophils and macrophages

Question 2 The chief functions of antibodies are to protect the host by which of following mechanisms?

Question 2 options:

A) Blocking phagocytosis

B) Neutralizing bacterial toxins

C) Inactivating the inflammatory process

D) Absorbing antigens

Question 3

What is the term used to describe phagocyte function that causes them to stick to capillary and venule walls

Question 3 options:

A) Diapedesis

B) Phagocytosis

C) Exudation

D) Margination

Allergens are antigens that cause allergic responses, true or false?

Question 4 options:

True

False

Here are four types of hypersensitivity disorders. Which of the following is the most common and characterized by an immediate reaction?

Question 5 options:

A) Type I

B) Type II

C) Type II

D) Type IV

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NSG 5003 Advanced Pathophysiology

Week 3 Knowledge Check

Question 1 Which of the following is a true statement about genes?

Question 1 options:

A) Genes are structures within chromosomes of each cell that contain deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

B) Genes are messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA)

C) Genes are cells that determine gender during fertilization

D) Genes are antibodies that promote disease

Question 2 Which of the following is the major cause of death from cancer?

Question 2 options:

A) Infection

B) Hemorrhage

C) Pain

D) Metastasis

Question 3 Which of the following statements is true with respect to the stages of cancer?

Question 3 options:

A) Stage 1 represents a poor prognosis

B) Localized cancer is a stage 4

C) Benign tumors are stage 2

D) Cancer that has spread regionally is a stage 3

Question 4 Mutations in _______ can result in uncontrolled and increased cellular replication.

A) DNA

B) RNA

C) Oncogene

D) Chromosome

Question 5 Leukopenia is the result of chemotherapy or radiation treatment for cancer. This condition causes which of the following complications?

Question 5 options:

A) Anemia

B) Cachexia

C) Blood clots

D) Infection

NSG 5003 Advanced Pathophysiology

Week 4 Knowledge Check

Question 1 Hypertension is the elevation of systemic arterial blood pressure as a result of increase in total peripheral resistance and ___________?

Question 1 options:

Decrease venous return

Increased cardiac output

Decreased oxygen perfusion

Increased heart rate

Question 2High cholesterol accelerates atherosclerotic and atheromatic process which results in an increased risk of which event?

Question 2 options:

Ischemic stroke

Liver failure

Myocardial infarction

Deep vein thrombosis

Question 3 What mechanism is responsible for weight gain and edema in patients with heart failure?

Question 3 options:

Increased aldosterone levels

Decreased angiotensin level

Decreased vascular resistance

Decreased renin levels

Question 4 What does the EKG show in prinzmetal angina?

Question 4 options:

ST segment depression

Absent P waves

Prolonged PR interval

ST segment elevation

Question 5 A diastolic murmur, accentuated first heart sound and opening snap are characteristic of which valvular dysfunction?

Question 5 options:

Aortic stenosis

Mitral stenosis

Tricuspid regurgitation

Aortic regurgitation

NSG 5003 Advanced Pathophysiology

Week 5 Knowledge Check

Question 1 Which statement best describes the major characteristic of bronchiolitis?

Question 1 options:

Destruction of lung parenchyma and collapse of distal airways

Obstruction by eosinophilic mucous plugs in the upper airway

Widespread inflammation of the bronchioles

Extensive constriction of the bronchioles

Question 2 Which of the following physiologic abnormalities is characteristic of emphysema?

Question 2 options:

Extensive inflammation of the lower airways

Trapping of air in distal air sacs

Widespread occurrence of bronchial plugs

collapse of proximal airways

Question 3 Which of the following describes an asthma that is common in children and adolescents, with bronchospasm occurring within 3 minutes of activity?

Question 3 options:

Occupational-induced

Drug-induced

Exercise-induced

Cardiac-induced

Question 4 Which of the following values is consistent with acute respiratory failure?

Question 4 options:

PaO2 of 100 mmHg

PaCO2 of 40 mmHg

pH less than 7.3

pH greater than 7.6

Question 5 What is the most life-threatening type of croup usually caused by Haemophilus influenzae?

Question 5 options:

Respiratory distress syndrome

Epiglottitis

Cystic fibrosis

Bronchiolitis

NSG 5003 Advanced Pathophysiology

Week 6 Knowledge Check

Question 1

Both iron and folate are vital to meet both the woman’s needs and those of the developing baby. They play an active role in the development of:

Question 1 options:

A) Erythrocytes

B) Leukocytes

C) Neutrophils

D) Platelets

Within the first year of life, it is normal for a childs:

Question 2 options:

A) Reticulocyte count to rise

B) Platelet count to fall

C) Lymphocyte count to rise

D) Eosinophil count to fall

Question 3

A 63-year-old woman with diabetes notes that she has a general feeling of tiredness and a loss of appetite. The physician collects a CBC in addition to normal diabetic laboratory tests. The results indicate an anemia, and she is referred to a hematologist. The hematologist reviews her laboratory findings and begins to explain her diagnosis of megaloblastic anemia. Further testing indicates that the woman suffers from a vitamin B12 deficiency or PA. This condition is often associated with:

Question 3 options:

A) Chronic gastritis

B) Thalassemia

C) Iron Deficiency

D) Inadequate dietary intake

Question 4

The treatment for iron overload is

Question 4 options:

A) Vitamin C supplements

B) Phlebotomy

C) Aspirin

D) Plasmapheresis

DIC is secondary to a wide variety of well-defined clinical conditions, specifically those that activate the clotting cascade. The clotting may result in the consumption of platelets, and clotting factors may lead to severe bleeding that is caused by:

Question 5 options:

A) Endothelial damage

B) Lack of thrombin production

C) Increased synthesis of thrombomodulin

D) Platelet activation

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NSG 5003 Advanced Pathophysiology

Week 7 Knowledge Check

Question 1

In the digestive system, the stomach is stimulated by eating to produce large volumes of gastric secretions. The secretion that is responsible for converting pepsinogen to pepsin and acts as a bactericide against swallowed organisms is:

Question 1 options:

A) Gastroferrin

B) Hydrochloric acid

C) Intrinsic factor

D) Chymotrypsin

Question 2

The enteric nervous system regulates intestinal motility. Of the two movements that promote motility, the one that occurs more frequently is:

Question 2 options:

A) Segmentation

B) Peristalsis

C) Vagal stimulation

D) Neural reflex

Question 3

A 31-year-old woman visits a gastroenterologist’s office with complaints of diarrhea. The stool is bloody with mucous. Although the sample will be sent to a laboratory for analysis, the gastroenterologist suggests an endoscopy and histologic studies of biopsied tissue. She discusses the possible diagnoses, among them Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis. The type of diarrhea caused by an inflammatory disorder of the intestine is:

Question 3 options:

A) Secretory

B) Small-volume

C) Motility

D) Large-volume

Question 4

Patients who suffer from ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease have abdominal pain, which is the result of distention and inflammation. This type of pain is known as:

Question 4 options:

A) Visceral

B) Referred

C) Referred

D) Somatic

Question 4

Patients who suffer from ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease have abdominal pain, which is the result of distention and inflammation. This type of pain is known as:

Question 4 options:

A) Visceral

B) Referred

C) Referred

D) Somatic

NSG 5003 Advanced Pathophysiology

Week 8 Knowledge Check

Question 1

The kidney is able to keep the rate of glomerular perfusion and GFR fairly constant over a range of arterial pressures. One mechanism responsible for the autoregulatory response in the kidney is:

Question 1 options:

Myogenic mechanism

Active transport

Carrier mechanism

Passive transport

Question 2

Acute cystitis is an inflammation of the bladder and is the most common site of UTIs. A UTI is an inflammation of the urinary epithelium most usually caused by:

Question 2 options:

Fungus from the perineal area

Bacteria from gut flora

Herpes simplex 2

A worm or parasite

Question 3

Different patterns of urinary sediment may be associated with varying types of glomerulonephritis. The loss of the negative electrical charge across the glomerular filtration

membrane and an increase in filtration pore size enhances the movement of proteins into the urine. The type of sediment characterized by the presence of blood and varying degrees of protein in the urine is:

Question 3 options:

Nephritic

Urodynamic

Polymorphic

Crescentic

Question 4

An 11-year old girl is seen in her pediatrician’s office. Her mother has scheduled an appointment because she is concerned that her daughter is developing faster than her friends. The pediatrician explains that a variety of factors influence the timing of puberty. The young client states that she has worn a bra for almost 2 years. Breast development is caused by the secretion of:

Question 4 options:

Estradiol

Androgens

Progesterone

Gonadotropin

Question 5

In female adolescents, egg production occurs:

Question 5 options:

During puberty

During leptin secretion

During embryonic development

During the menstrual cycle

NSG 5003 Advanced Pathophysiology

Week 9 Knowledge Check

Question 1 A 52-year-old man is admitted into the hospital, awaiting a cervical spinal fusion after suffering from an all-terrain vehicle (ATV) accident. His chief complaint is neck pain and numbness and tingling in his fingers. Concern exists that he has suffered from some injury to his spinal cord.

During the surgical procedure, the physicians order an examination to detect electrical brain activity resulting from a stimulus to detect sensory pathway integrity. This test is known as:

Question 1 options:

PET scan

Myelogram

EPs

fMRI

Question 2 Several months ago, young woman fell while rock climbing; her left leg was wedged tightly into a crevice. The resulting injury was severe and required amputation below the knee. She reported to her physician that she continues to suffer from phantom limb pain. The theory that best explains this type of pain is:

Question 2 options:

Gate control theory (GCT)

Pattern theory

Specificity theory

Neuromatrix theory

Question 3 A psychiatrist is seeing a young man in his late teens after his mother notes changes in her son’s behavior. For the past 6 months, the young man has become enthralled with a specific television show, believing that the host is specifically directing information to him. As the son walks in, the physician notes that the young man’s personal hygiene has been neglected. The psychiatrist talks to the son and notes that he repeatedly uses the same phrases throughout the conversation. An initial diagnosis of schizophrenia is made.

The most common symptoms in schizophrenia are:

Question 3 options:

Negative

Positive

Cognitive

Sensorimotor

Question 4 The young man’s mother discusses the issues that concern her as she cares for her son. She expresses feelings of stress and hopelessness and suffers from insomnia. These are characteristic of:

Question 4 options:

Depression

General anxiety disorder (GAD)

Bipolar disorder

Panic attacks

Question 5 An ultrasound shows a child of approximately 29 weeks’ gestation with an apparent posterior neural tube defect. An absence of amniotic fluid is evident, suggesting a prior rupture of membranes. The child is diagnosed with a thoracic myelomeningocele and is surgically repaired within 24 hours of delivery.

In addition to this defect, the infant is at an increased risk of:

Question 5 options:

Chiari II malformation

Craniosynostosis

Cortical dysplasia

Cerebral arteriovenous malformations

NSG 5003 Advanced Pathophysiology

Week 10 Knowledge Check

Question 1As the young mother is walking to her car, she becomes aware that someone is following her. Her body responds with a “fight or flight” response, which is regulated by the adrenal medulla’s secretion of:

Question 1 options:

Cortisol

Catecholamines

Glucocorticoids

Androgens

Question 2 Joints are classified based on the degree of movement they permit or on the connecting tissues that hold them together. A joint in which the two bony surfaces are united by a ligament or membrane is called

Question 2 options:

Syndesmosis

Gomphosis

Articulation

Symphysis

Question 3 A 24-year-old mother visits her obstetrician’s office 1 week after delivering her baby. She is having trouble with breast-feeding and milk expression. The obstetrician prescribes a nasal spray that will stimulate the posterior pituitary to release which one of the following hormones?

Question 3 options:

Oxytocin

Prolactin

Calcitonin

Incretin

Question 4 A 15 year of boy suffered a complete separation of a ligament from its bony attachment. This injury is known as

Question 4 options:

Lateral epicondylopathy

Crepitus

Avulsion

Malunion

Question 5 Bone formation requires collagen synthesis, fiber formation, and mineralization. The majority of the mineral content in the body is an analog of which naturally occurring mineral?

Question 5 options:

Periosteum

Procallus

Calcium phosphate

Hydroxyapatite

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