Eastern Florida NUR3164 Unit 7 Discussion Part 1 Latest 2019 March NUR3164 Introduction to Nursing Research and Health Informatics Unit 7 Discussion Part 1
Ethics & Health Informatics: Part I
According to the federal regulations for
human subjects research, children, prisoners, and pregnant women are considered
the “vulnerable” population. However,
there are actually other sub-populations that are often considered vulnerable
due to the nature of terms of their participation ~ that would include
students, employees, impoverished, elders, ethnic groups, disenfranchised
populations and cognitively impaired individuals (with cognitively impaired, it
is primarily related to the capacity to give informed consent).
So, what does this mean to the
student/employee as a vulnerable population?
(1) a potential subject can be influenced/induced to participate or (2)
a potential subject can find themselves in a situational/positional
vulnerability subjecting them to coercion.
The difference between these is that with unduly influencing a potential
subject, one is offering them an excessive or inappropriate reward for their
participation. When I received IRB
approval for my study, I had to offer support to show that the gift card I was
giving was a reasonable amount that would not cloud the potential subjects’
decision-making with the offered reward.
Coercion on the other hand, is when someone’s power/position is used to
negatively impact the potential subjects if they don’t participate, influencing
the “voluntary choice” aspect of the research.
(Teacher saying you get an A if you do participate and “a poor grade” if
you don’t ~ that type of thing.)
Institutional Review Boards (IRB) are
designed to safeguard against these issues, and all research involving human
subjects must have IRB approval.
So ~ Where did we come from and where are
we going in the area of ethics?
Discussion Board Topic:
After reading the Belmont Report, Answer ONE of the following questions
~ the goal is that all of the questions get covered by the students in this
class for all of you to review.
Expand on the Nuremberg Code and its role
in the current ethical guidelines
Expand on the declaration of Helsinki and
its role in the current ethical guidelines
Many research studies that were identified
as “unethical” lead to the task force and other documents forming today’s
ethical guidelines. The majority of these experiments are horrific, but deserve
to be remembered, lest we forget where we came from. Choose ONE of the following studies to expand
upon, including their implications to the study subjects and to the development
of ethical guidelines.
Tuskegee Syphilis Study
Biomedical experiments on children: The
polio vaccine trials
The 1956–1971 Willowbrook hepatitis studies
Clinical trials involving thalidomide
Experiments on twin children in German
concentration camps conducted by J. Mengele from 1943 to 1944 on approximately
1,500 sets of imprisoned twins at Auschwitz
What are the three ethical principles
identified by the Belmont Report? (expand on each)
Who are the vulnerable populations
protected by the Belmont Report? (how is “vulnerable” defined and how
are they protected?)
What happened in the U.S. AFTER the Belmont
Report in the U.S. in the area of ethical research practices?
What is an IRB, who does it protect, and
who offers it?
What must be included in informed consent?