Capella University Healthcare Laws and Policies United Nations Discussion

Capella University Healthcare Laws and Policies United Nations Discussion

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Capella University Healthcare Laws and Policies United Nations Discussion

Question Description
Section I has 2 parts to it.

Part A

Choosing a Health Care Law to Investigate – 4-5 pages, 4 references.

For this assignment, you will begin an investigation into the impact of legislation on health care services by choosing specific legislation as the focus of your investigation and developing a research question. This discussion will help you choose specific legislation by providing an opportunity to explore several options.Compare and contrast three federal or state health care laws that have had a meaningful impact on at least one population or segment of the health care industry, such as legislation affecting how older adults secure prescribed medications or acute-care hospitals are reimbursed.

Each law must been in effect for at least one year. Do not choose proposed legislation or bills that have not been signed into law.

Explain your interest in each law and provide a brief background on each.
Identify the law that you intend to choose as the focus of this week’s assignment.
Draft a proposed research question for the law you have identified as the basis for your investigation into its effects on the scope of, access to, availability of, and reimbursement for health care services. Formulate your research question as, “What effect did X have on Y?,” where X is the specific legislation and Y is the affected population or segment of the health care industry.

Here are a few examples to get you thinking about a suitable research question:

For emergency departments focused on reducing hospital readmissions: What effect did value-based bundling and reimbursement changes have on reducing hospital readmissions?
For a skilled nursing facility working on quality initiatives: What effect did the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) of 1987 have on skilled nursing facilities?
For mental health organizations: What effect did the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act (MHPAEA) of 2008 have on access for people with mental health problems?
For health plans: What effect did the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) of 2010, have on Medicare beneficiaries and coverage options?
Part B

Examining Health Care Legislation- 4-5 pages with 5 references

Professional Context

Health care professionals and leaders must be attuned to current health care legislation and advocacy issues that affect reimbursement, access, costs, quality, and innovation. Federal legislation sets the tone for health care regulation and payment. State legislation regulates health care professionals and health care facilities through licensures, certifications, audits, and surveys. Health care leaders must have a substantive understanding of current legislation and awareness of advocacy needs to represent their organizations, employees, and communities effectively.

This assignment provides an opportunity for you to begin an investigation of current health care legislation that affects a population or segment of the health care industry.

By successfully completing this assignment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies and assignment criteria:

Evaluate significant federal and state legislation that affects the scope of, access to, availability of, and reimbursement for health care services.
Describe the purpose and scope of specific health care legislation and its impact on health care services for a population or segment of the health care industry.
Develop a research question to guide an investigation into the effects of specific legislation on health care services.
Analyze the effects of values and assumptions inherent in the changing priorities in health planning and resource allocation.
Identify the historical underpinnings, underlying assumptions, and values affecting specific health care legislation.
Evaluate the combined effects of social, economic, ethical, legal, and political forces on health care.
Explain how social, economic, ethical, legal, and political forces affect health care legislation.
Communicate effectively, in an appropriate form and style, consistent with applicable organizational, professional, and scholarly standards.
Write clearly and concisely in a logically coherent and appropriate form and style.
Scenario

You will assume the role of a health policy analyst working for a health care think tank. The board of directors has asked you to undertake a scholarly investigation of specific health care legislation to determine whether that legislation is achieving its aims. As a health care policy expert, the choice of legislation has been left up to you.

You have decided that your approach to this investigation will be to:

Examine the historical context of the legislation.
Review the available literature surrounding the legislation.
Analyze the available literature addressing the outcomes of the legislation.
Recommend changes to improve health policy in the area the legislation addresses.
For this assignment, you will choose the legislation you will investigate, develop a research question, and write the introduction to your research paper.
You will collect data to answer your research question from the peer-reviewed literature that you compile.
Your analysis of the literature will form the basis of your study.
You will consolidate the feedback from your instructor and peers on your previous work received and add your conclusions and recommendations for policy changes.
Instructions

Complete this assignment in three parts.

Part 1

To begin your investigation, choose federal or state health care legislation that affects a population or segment of the health care industry. There are numerous health care laws to consider, with various implications for delivery, access, cost, and outcomes. You are encouraged to explore current health care legislation affecting the industry segment that interests you most. This week’s discussion will help you consider potential choices and formulate your research question.

Choose legislation that has had a meaningful impact on at least one population or segment of the health care industry.
Be sure that this legislation has been in effect for at least one year. Do not choose proposed legislation or bills that have not been signed into law.
Consider the effects of social, economic, ethical, legal, and political forces on your chosen health care legislation, as well as the historical underpinnings, underlying assumptions, and values that may have influenced it.
Part 2

Develop a research question as the basis for your investigation into the effects of health care legislation on the scope of, access to, availability of, and reimbursement for health care services. You will answer this question as you work through each assignment in the course.

Formulate your research question as What effect did X have on Y?, where X is the specific legislation and Y is the affected population or segment of the health care industry.

Here are a few examples to get you thinking about a suitable research question:

For emergency departments focused on reducing hospital readmissions: What effect did value-based bundling and reimbursement changes have on reducing hospital readmissions?
For a skilled nursing facility working on quality initiatives: What effect did the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) of 1987 have on skilled nursing facilities?
For mental health organizations: What effect did the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act (MHPAEA) of 2008 have on access for people with mental health problems?
For health plans: What effect did the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) of 2010, have on Medicare beneficiaries and coverage options?
Part 3

Write the introduction to your research paper. The introduction will be developed around your research question.

For this assignment, create the basic framework of an APA-formatted research paper. Include:

A title page.
Introduction. Introduce your chosen legislation.
State the problem. Identify the relevant issues with the legislation and the affected population or health care industry segment.
State the purpose of the study.
Present your research question.
Provide a brief history of the legislation or policy background.
Identify the market, economic, and/or social forces addressed in the legislation.
A references page.
This assignment should comprise 4–5 pages of content plus title and references pages.

You will add Literature Review to your research paper in subsequent assignment

Supporting Evidence

Cite at least five credible sources from peer-reviewed journals that support your investigation.

Evaluation

The following requirements correspond to the assignment scoring guide, so be sure to address each point. Read the performance-level descriptions for each criterion to see how your work will be assessed.

Explain how social, economic, ethical, legal, and political forces affect health care legislation.
What evidence supports your conclusions?
Identify the historical underpinnings, underlying assumptions, and values affecting the health care legislation you have chosen to investigate.
What cause-and-effect relationships among these factors and your chosen legislation can you discern?
Which areas of uncertainty preclude you from drawing precise, defensible conclusions about how these factors have influenced the legislation?
What evidence supports your assertions and conclusions?
Describe the purpose and scope of the health care legislation you have chosen to investigate and its impact on health care services for a population or segment of the health care industry.
What evidence supports your assertions and conclusions?
Develop a research question to guide your investigation into the effects of your chosen legislation on health care services.
Consider the salient characteristics of a good research question, such as scope, specificity, interest, and feasibility.
Be sure to phrase your research question as What effect did X have on Y?
Write clearly and concisely in a logically coherent and appropriate form and style.
Write with a specific purpose and audience in mind.
Adhere to scholarly and disciplinary writing standards and APA formatting requirements.
Proofread your writing to minimize errors that could distract readers and make it difficult for them to focus on the substance of your introduction.
Section II has 3 parts to it.

Part A

Cost Controls- 3-4 pages with 3 references

Use what you have learned from conduct to your research to address the issue of cost controls.

Describe painful and painless cost controls that result from health care legislation.
What are the implications for stakeholders?
Cite at least one health care law resulting in painful cost controls for at least one stakeholder.
Explain how this law affected health care professionals or a specific area of the health care environment.
Cite at least one health care law resulting in painless cost controls for at least one stakeholder.
Explain how this law potentially affected health care professionals and their organizations.
Identify which cost control strategies help the most stakeholders and explain why.
Provide credible evidence from peer-reviewed sources to support your conclusions.
Identify any cost controls that are addressed in the legislation you chose as the focus of your investigation in the course assignments.
What are the implications for stakeholders?
Part B

Reviewing the Literature – 6-8 pages, 3 references

Professional Context

Policy analysis begins with a review of current literature. Health care leaders must understand how and why laws are created. The best way to explore the historical significance and underpinnings of current legislation is to read the literature. Health policy making and legislation are dynamic processes influenced by multiple factors. A thorough review of the literature helps a policy analyst determine whether specific legislation is having the intended impact and if it has produced unintended consequences. In addition, a literature review enables informed recommendations for policy changes and advocacy.

This assignment provides an opportunity for you to complete an in-depth literature review related to the health care legislation you chose to investigate.

Evaluate significant federal and state legislation that affects the scope of, access to, availability of, and reimbursement for health care services.
Summarize findings from the literature on the effects of legislation on the scope, access to, availability of, and reimbursement for health care services.
Analyze the effects of at least one piece of legislation on health care access, cost, and/or quality.
Analyze the effects of values and assumptions inherent in the changing priorities in health planning and resource allocation.
Articulate underlying assumptions, values, and biases in the literature.
Recommend possible initiatives available to address current gaps in health care policy.
Identify current gaps in health care policy.
Evaluate the effectiveness of specific legislation in closing current gaps in health care policy.
: Communicate effectively, in an appropriate form and style, consistent with applicable organizational, professional, and scholarly standards.
Write clearly and concisely in a logically coherent and appropriate form and style.
Scenario

The health care think tank board of directors was intrigued by the introduction to your proposed research and has approved your choice of legislation as the focus of your investigation. Consequently, you have been given approval to proceed with the research. Your next step will be to conduct a review of the literature to determine the impact that your legislation has had on the industry and on various stakeholders, including patients.

Instructions

Conduct a review of current literature related to the research question you developed in your Chapter 14 of the Teitelbaum and Wilensky (2019) text provides a robust discussion on structuring a policy analysis. Tips in this chapter may help you with this section of your work.

Include at least 12 articles, with a focus on how your chosen legislation has affected health care facilities, health plans, communities, and various stakeholders, including patients. Seek literature that will help you answer your research question.
Be sure that your review of the literature captures the diversity of views. Most policies are steeped in controversy, and few will agree on the benefits of a particular policy. The more recent the policy, the more likely you are to find diverse opinions.
Summarize your findings from the literature. Consider organizing your literature review using subheadings to discern conflicting findings and viewpoints.
Document Format and Length

Organize your literature review as follows:

Introduction and the topic legislation.
Brief description of the search strategy you used to secure the needed articles.
Historical overview or context for the legislation.
Current context for the legislation.
Intended outcomes and possible unintended consequences.
Specific theme of how the legislation affected the specific element of health care (the “Y” part of your research question).
Possible gaps in the legislation.
Summary.
Your literature review should be 6–8 pages of content plus title and references pages.

Evaluation

The following requirements correspond to the grading criteria in the assignment scoring guide, so be sure to address each point. Read the performance-level descriptions for each criterion to see how your work will be assessed.

Summarize findings from the literature on the effects of legislation on the scope, access to, availability of, and reimbursement for health care services.
What is known, unknown, or uncertain in your findings?
What disagreements or controversies did you uncover in your review?
Is further research required?
Analyze the effects of at least one piece of legislation on health care access, cost, and/or quality.
Is the legislation clear in its application and scope?
What factors determine its impact on health care access, cost, and/or quality?
Articulate underlying assumptions, values, and biases in the literature.
How do these factors influence the authors’ arguments and conclusions?
How might your perspective or position influence your analysis?
Analyze current gaps in health care policy.
What evidence do you have to support your findings?
Evaluate the effectiveness of the legislation you have chosen to investigate in closing current gaps in health care policy.
On which criteria do you base your assessment?
What evidence do you have to support your conclusions?
Write clearly and concisely in a logically coherent and appropriate form and style.
Write with a specific purpose and audience in mind.
Adhere to scholarly and disciplinary writing standards and APA formatting requirements for your sources.
Part C

Moving Toward Evidence-Based Quality Measures – 4-5 pages, 4 reference.

The current trends in health care delivery are focused on quality benchmarking and reporting to improve health care.

Provide your perspective on high-quality health care.
Explain how high-quality health care is supported by legislation.
Provide evidence to support your conclusions.
Describe the extent to which health care quality is valued in your community or health care organization.
Identify health care quality trends you have observed during your career.
Cite specific examples in the literature.
Explain whether quality is addressed in the legislation you chose as the focus of your investigation for the course assignments.
Describe the implications for the delivery of high-quality care.
Cite at least two articles on the impact of your subject legislation on health care quality that you can include in your literature review assignment this week.
Section III has 4 parts to it.

Part A

Public Health Model- 3-4 pages, 3 reference.

Discuss why the health care community needs to change from addressing individual disease issues to a public health approach. Analyze how the Alma Ata Declarations and the Social Determinants of Health study, which you read about in your Studies, influence and impact the transition to public health focus.

Part B

Global Health Priorities – 4 pages, 3 reference.

Discuss one of the Top Ten Global Health Priorities or Global Health Best Buys, which you read about in your Studies. Analyze the relationship of your selected priority to the United Nations (UN) Declaration of Human Rights, the U.S. Global Health Initiative, and the Alma Ata Declarations. Include in your discussion the significance of the priority in global health programs.

Part C

Social Determinants of Health -5-7 pages, 3-5 reference.

In this individual assignment, you will be taking a closer look at the specific issues in your group’s chosen country. You will analyze your selected social determinant or determinants of health, incorporating the major bullet points below.

Address the following major points in the chosen country:

Describe the demographic profile.
Identify data related to each social determinant of health.
Identify and analyze the current health policy and how it impacts the social determinant of health.
Identify strategies for addressing health disparities.
Identify socioeconomic factors.
Identify cultural influences.
Identify environmental factors.
Identify any other contributing factors that influence the status of the social determinant of health.
Analyze the social determinants of health against all influencing factors.
Analyze the relationship of national health policy to global policy initiatives, including the United Nations Millennium Development Goals and the recommendations from the Commission of Social Determinants of Health.
Writing Requirements

Written communication: Written communication is free of errors that detract from the overall message.
APA formatting: Resources and citations are formatted according to current APA style and formatting.
Number of resources: Minimum of 3–5
Page length: 5–7 pages.
Font and font size: Times New Roman, 12 point.
Part D

Millennium Development Goals – 3-4 pages, 3 references.

Discuss one of the Millennium Development Goals, which you read about in your Studies. Identify at least one of the targets in your selected goal and analyze how the designated agency has addressed the stated indicator. Include the current outcomes and status of achievement. Also provide the web link to resources from the designated agency.

Section IV has 4 parts to it.

Part A

Best Buys in Global Health – 4 pages, 3 reference.

Discuss the rationale for the selection of the Global Health Best Buys, which you read about in your Studies. Select one of the best buys and analyze how the issue represents the best approach to resolving a global health policy issue.

Part B

Global Health Ethics – 5-7 pages, 3-5 resources.

In this individual assignment, you will be exploring the specific ethical issues related to the social determinants of health.

For example, if your chosen country is Ethiopia, you could discuss the issue of justice as it relates to the social determinant of environment and health. As Kebede-Francis notes, the lack of water in Ethiopia with the subsequent food shortages is due directly to lack of governance of the resources—not to a lack of rain (p. 126). In this example, you would explore the governance structure that results in poor resource management, how the country applies the models of social justice, the influencing cultural mores of the country, and the application of the principles from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

You will analyze the ethical issues surrounding your selected social determinants of health, incorporating the following major points.

Include the following major points in your discussion of ethics:

Identify the major ethical issues related to the specific social determinants of health.
Analyze the ethical issue within the following parameters:
Governance of the country. More specifically, how does the governance and related policies, determine or influence the social determinant you are investigating?
Models of social and global justice. More specifically, which models are being used in the country of choice? Is this an influencing factor on the ethical issue?
Cultural and social mores of the country. How do these influence the social determinant and do they create ethical dilemmas?
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Do the ethical issues present a conflict with the Declaration of Human Rights? If so, how?
Application of the principles of nonmaleficence, beneficence, and justice.
Writing Requirements

Written communication: Written communication is free of errors that detract from the overall message.
APA formatting: Resources and citations are formatted according to current APA style and formatting.
Number of resources: Minimum of 3–5 resources
Page length: 5–7 pages.
Font and font size: Times New Roman, 12 point.
Part C

Ethical Issues – 3-4 pages, 3 references.

Assume the role of a volunteer in a specific NGO. From this perspective, summarize for other volunteers the potential ethical dilemmas they may confront when volunteering in least developed or developing countries. In your discussion, include the potential ethical issues related to conducting research as part of the volunteer assignment.

Part D

Universal Declaration of Human Rights – 3-4 pages, 3 references.

Select one article from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which you read about in your Studies. Analyze the application of the article to one of the least developed or developing countries. In your discussion, include strategies employed by global health organizations to achieve compliance with the article.

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You must proofread your paper. But do not strictly rely on your computer’s spell-checker and grammar-checker; failure to do so indicates a lack of effort on your part and you can expect your grade to suffer accordingly. Papers with numerous misspelled words and grammatical mistakes will be penalized. Read over your paper – in silence and then aloud – before handing it in and make corrections as necessary. Often it is advantageous to have a friend proofread your paper for obvious errors. Handwritten corrections are preferable to uncorrected mistakes.

Use a standard 10 to 12 point (10 to 12 characters per inch) typeface. Smaller or compressed type and papers with small margins or single-spacing are hard to read. It is better to let your essay run over the recommended number of pages than to try to compress it into fewer pages.

Likewise, large type, large margins, large indentations, triple-spacing, increased leading (space between lines), increased kerning (space between letters), and any other such attempts at “padding” to increase the length of a paper are unacceptable, wasteful of trees, and will not fool your professor.

The paper must be neatly formatted, double-spaced with a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, and sides of each page. When submitting hard copy, be sure to use white paper and print out using dark ink. If it is hard to read your essay, it will also be hard to follow your argument.

ADDITIONAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE CLASS

Discussion Questions (DQ)

Initial responses to the DQ should address all components of the questions asked, include a minimum of one scholarly source, and be at least 250 words.
Successful responses are substantive (i.e., add something new to the discussion, engage others in the discussion, well-developed idea) and include at least one scholarly source.
One or two sentence responses, simple statements of agreement or “good post,” and responses that are off-topic will not count as substantive. Substantive responses should be at least 150 words.
I encourage you to incorporate the readings from the week (as applicable) into your responses.
Weekly Participation

Your initial responses to the mandatory DQ do not count toward participation and are graded separately.
In addition to the DQ responses, you must post at least one reply to peers (or me) on three separate days, for a total of three replies.
Participation posts do not require a scholarly source/citation (unless you cite someone else’s work).
Part of your weekly participation includes viewing the weekly announcement and attesting to watching it in the comments. These announcements are made to ensure you understand everything that is due during the week.
APA Format and Writing Quality

Familiarize yourself with APA format and practice using it correctly. It is used for most writing assignments for your degree. Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for APA paper templates, citation examples, tips, etc. Points will be deducted for poor use of APA format or absence of APA format (if required).
Cite all sources of information! When in doubt, cite the source. Paraphrasing also requires a citation.
I highly recommend using the APA Publication Manual, 6th edition.
Use of Direct Quotes

I discourage overutilization of direct quotes in DQs and assignments at the Masters’ level and deduct points accordingly.
As Masters’ level students, it is important that you be able to critically analyze and interpret information from journal articles and other resources. Simply restating someone else’s words does not demonstrate an understanding of the content or critical analysis of the content.
It is best to paraphrase content and cite your source.
LopesWrite Policy

For assignments that need to be submitted to LopesWrite, please be sure you have received your report and Similarity Index (SI) percentage BEFORE you do a “final submit” to me.
Once you have received your report, please review it. This report will show you grammatical, punctuation, and spelling errors that can easily be fixed. Take the extra few minutes to review instead of getting counted off for these mistakes.
Review your similarities. Did you forget to cite something? Did you not paraphrase well enough? Is your paper made up of someone else’s thoughts more than your own?
Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for tips on improving your paper and SI score.
Late Policy

The university’s policy on late assignments is 10% penalty PER DAY LATE. This also applies to late DQ replies.
Please communicate with me if you anticipate having to submit an assignment late. I am happy to be flexible, with advance notice. We may be able to work out an extension based on extenuating circumstances.
If you do not communicate with me before submitting an assignment late, the GCU late policy will be in effect.
I do not accept assignments that are two or more weeks late unless we have worked out an extension.
As per policy, no assignments are accepted after the last day of class. Any assignment submitted after midnight on the last day of class will not be accepted for grading.
Communication

Communication is so very important. There are multiple ways to communicate with me:
Questions to Instructor Forum: This is a great place to ask course content or assignment questions. If you have a question, there is a good chance one of your peers does as well. This is a public forum for the class.
Individual Forum: This is a private forum to ask me questions or send me messages. This will be checked at least once every 24 hours.

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